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Acta Trop. 2018 Jan;177:135-145. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.09.028. Epub 2017 Oct 7.

Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador: the causative Leishmania parasites and clinico-epidemiological features.

Author information

1
Departamento de Parasitologia y Medicina Tropical, Centro de Biomedicina, Carrera de Medicina, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Universidad Catolica de Santiago de Guayaquil, Guayaquil, Ecuador; Leishmaniasis Project, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Universidad Catolica de Santiago de Guayaquil, Guayaquil, Ecuador; Department of Parasitology, Kochi Medical School, Kochi University, Kochi, Japan. Electronic address: yhashiguchi42@yahoo.co.jp.
2
Departamento de Parasitologia y Medicina Tropical, Centro de Biomedicina, Carrera de Medicina, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Universidad Catolica de Santiago de Guayaquil, Guayaquil, Ecuador; Leishmaniasis Project, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Universidad Catolica de Santiago de Guayaquil, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
3
Seccion de Entomologia, Instituto de Medicina Tropical "Daniel A. Carrion" y Departamento Academico de Microbiologia, Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru; Laboratorio de Entomologia, Instituto Nacional de Salud, Lima, Peru.
4
Leishmaniasis Project, Facultad de Ciencias Medicas, Universidad Catolica de Santiago de Guayaquil, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
5
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan.
6
Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan.
7
Division of Medical Zoology, Department of Infection and Immunity, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi, Japan.

Abstract

This study provides comprehensive information on the past and current status of the Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis (Andean-CL, uta) in Peru and Ecuador, mainly focusing on the causative Leishmania parasites and clinico-epidemiological features. Available information and data including our unpublished works were analyzed thoroughly. Endemic regions of the Andean-CL (uta) in Peru run from the north Piura/Cajamarca to the south Ayacucho at a wide range of the Pacific watersheds of the Andes through several departments, while in Ecuador those exist at limited and spotted areas in the country's mid-southwestern two provinces, Azuay and Chimborazo. The principal species of the genus Leishmania are completely different at subgenus level, L. (Viannia) peruviana in Peru, and L. (Leishmania) mexicana and L. (L.) major-like (infrequent occurrence) in Ecuador. The Peruvian uta is now prevalent in different age and sex groups, being not clearly defined as found in the past. The precise reasons are not known and should be elucidated further, though probable factors, such as emergence of other Leishmania parasites, non-immune peoples' migration into the areas, etc., were discussed briefly in the text. The Andean-CL cases in Ecuador are more rural than before, probably because of a rapid development of the Leishmania-positive communities and towns, and the change of life-styles of the inhabitants, including newly constructed houses and roads in the endemic areas. Such information is helpful for future management of the disease, not only for Leishmania-endemic areas in the Andes but also for other endemic areas.

KEYWORDS:

Andean cutaneous leishmaniasis; Andean-CL (uta); Clinico-epidemiological features; Ecuador; Leishmania; Peru

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