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Environ Sci Technol. 2017 Nov 7;51(21):12756-12763. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.7b02944. Epub 2017 Oct 26.

Novel Multi-isotope Tracer Approach To Test ZnO Nanoparticle and Soluble Zn Bioavailability in Joint Soil Exposures.

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Department of Earth Science & Engineering, Imperial College London , London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom.
Department of Environmental Geosciences, University of Vienna , Vienna 1090, Austria.
Department of Soil Science, University of Granada , Avd. Fuente Nueva, 18002 Granada, Spain.
Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux, UMR 7360 CNRS, Université de Lorraine , Campus Bridoux, Bâtiment IBISE, 8 rue du Général Delestraint, 57070 Metz, France.
Core Research Laboratories, Natural History Museum , Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom.
Centre for Ecology and Hydrology , Benson Lane, Wallingford, Oxford OX10 8BB, United Kingdom.
Department of Ecological Science, Faculty of Science, Vrije Universiteit , De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


Here we use two enriched stable isotopes, 68Znen and 64Znen (>99%), to prepare 68ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and soluble 64ZnCl2. The standard LUFA 2.2 test soil was dosed with 68ZnO NPs and soluble 64ZnCl2 to 5 mg kg-1 each, plus between 0 and 95 mg kg-1 of soluble ZnCl2 with a natural isotope composition. After 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of soil incubation, earthworms (Eisenia andrei) were introduced for 72 h exposures. Analyses of soils, pore waters, and earthworm tissues using multiple collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry allowed the simultaneous measurement of the diagnostic 68Zn/66Zn, 64Zn/66Zn, and 68Zn/64Zn ratios, from which the three different isotopic forms of Zn were quantified. Eisenia andrei was able to regulate Zn body concentrations with no difference observed between the different total dosing concentrations. The accumulation of labeled Zn by the earthworms showed a direct relationship with the proportion of labeled to total Zn in the pore water, which increased with longer soil incubation times and decreasing soil pH. The 68Znen/64Znen ratios determined for earthworms (1.09 ± 0.04), soils (1.09 ± 0.02), and pore waters (1.08 ± 0.02) indicate indistinguishable environmental distribution and uptake of the Zn forms, most likely due to rapid dissolution of the ZnO NPs.

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