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Neuro Oncol. 2018 Feb 19;20(3):420-432. doi: 10.1093/neuonc/nox163.

Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of brain tumor: the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE).

Author information

1
Center for Epidemiology and Screening, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
2
The Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.
3
Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, Ulm University, Ulm, Germany.
4
Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Regional Health Service, Local Health Unit ASL RM1, Rome, Italy.
5
Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
6
Unit of Cancer Epidemiology, Città della Salute e della Scienza University-Hospital and Center for Cancer Prevention (CPO), Turin, Italy.
7
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
8
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
9
Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, Utrecht, Netherlands.
10
Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
11
Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology Care Science and Society, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
12
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Bispebjerg-Frederiksberg Hospital, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
13
Biomarkers and Clinical Resreach in Eating Disorders, Ballerup Center for Mental Health Services, Capitol Region of Denmark, Rigshospitalt- Ballerup, Denmark.
14
Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherlands.
15
MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College, London, UK.
16
Department for Determinants of Chronic Diseases, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands.
17
Department of Social & Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
18
Vorarlberg Cancer Registry, Bregenz, Austria.
19
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.
20
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
21
Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
22
Epidemiology and Prevention Unit, Department of Preventive and Predictive Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.
23
Unit of Epidemiology & Medical Statistics, Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.
24
Unit of Epidemiology, Regional Health Service ASL TO3, Grugliasco, Italy.
25
Centre for Atmospheric and Instrumentation Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, UK.
26
University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.
27
National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands.
28
Molecular end Epidemiology Unit, HuGeF, Human Genetics Foundation, Torino, Italy.
29
Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark.

Abstract

Background:

Epidemiological evidence on the association between ambient air pollution and brain tumor risk is sparse and inconsistent.

Methods:

In 12 cohorts from 6 European countries, individual estimates of annual mean air pollution levels at the baseline residence were estimated by standardized land-use regression models developed within the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects: particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5, ≤10, and 2.5-10 μm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10, and PMcoarse), PM2.5 absorbance, nitrogen oxides (NO2 and NOx) and elemental composition of PM. We estimated cohort-specific associations of air pollutant concentrations and traffic intensity with total, malignant, and nonmalignant brain tumor, in separate Cox regression models, adjusting for risk factors, and pooled cohort-specific estimates using random-effects meta-analyses.

Results:

Of 282194 subjects from 12 cohorts, 466 developed malignant brain tumors during 12 years of follow-up. Six of the cohorts also had data on nonmalignant brain tumor, where among 106786 subjects, 366 developed brain tumor: 176 nonmalignant and 190 malignant. We found a positive, statistically nonsignificant association between malignant brain tumor and PM2.5 absorbance (hazard ratio and 95% CI: 1.67; 0.89-3.14 per 10-5/m3), and weak positive or null associations with the other pollutants. Hazard ratio for PM2.5 absorbance (1.01; 0.38-2.71 per 10-5/m3) and all other pollutants were lower for nonmalignant than for malignant brain tumors.

Conclusion:

We found suggestive evidence of an association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 absorbance indicating traffic-related air pollution and malignant brain tumors, and no association with overall or nonmalignant brain tumors.

PMID:
29016987
PMCID:
PMC5817954
DOI:
10.1093/neuonc/nox163
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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