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J Sep Sci. 2018 Jan;41(1):99-124. doi: 10.1002/jssc.201700850. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

Core-shell microspheres with porous nanostructured shells for liquid chromatography.

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Thermo Fisher Scientific, Runcorn, UK.
Department of Chemistry, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.


The development of new stationary phases has been the key aspect for fast and efficient high-performance liquid chromatography separation with relatively low backpressure. Core-shell particles, with a solid core and porous shell, have been extensively investigated and commercially manufactured in the last decade. The excellent performance of core-shell particles columns has been recorded for a wide range of analytes, covering small and large molecules, neutral and ionic (acidic and basic), biomolecules and metabolites. In this review, we first introduce the advance and advantages of core-shell particles (or more widely known as superficially porous particles) against non-porous particles and fully porous particles. This is followed by the detailed description of various methods used to fabricate core-shell particles. We then discuss the applications of common silica core-shell particles (mostly commercially manufactured), spheres-on-sphere particles and core-shell particles with a non-silica shell. This review concludes with a summary and perspective on the development of stationary phase materials for high-performance liquid chromatography applications.


core-shell particles; fast liquid chromatography; hybrid particles; spheres-on-sphere silica; superficially porous particles


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