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J Hum Evol. 2017 Oct 6. pii: S0047-2484(17)30348-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.08.006. [Epub ahead of print]

Ruminants (Giraffidae and Bovidae) from Kanapoi.

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Sorbonne Universités - CR2P-MNHN, CNRS, UPMC-Paris 6 - CP 38, Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, 8 Rue Buffon, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05, France; Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Department of Human Evolution, Deutscher Platz 6, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:
Departamento de Antropología, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile; Institute of Cognitive & Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.


We update here our recent revision of the Kanapoi ruminants and describe recently collected material. We now regard the occurrence of reduncins as doubtful, we revise the identification of a large raphicerin as being more probably Gazella, and we add Gazella cf. janenschi and the Cephalophini to the faunal list. New material of Tragelaphus kyaloi suggests that this species held its head unlike other tragelaphins, and was not an exclusive dedicated browser, but Kanapoi pre-dates the Pliocene change of Sivatherium, Aepyceros, Alcelaphini, and even Tragelaphini toward more grazing diets. Kanapoi shares several ruminant taxa with sites in Ethiopia and Tanzania, attesting to latitudinal exchanges.


Africa; Bovidae; Giraffidae; Kanapoi; Pliocene

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