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J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2018 Feb 1;77(2):193-198. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001566.

Changes in Kidney Function Associated With Daily Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate/Emtricitabine for HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis Use in the United States Demonstration Project.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, Kaiser Permanente San Francisco Medical Center, San Francisco, CA.
2
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA.
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO.
4
San Francisco Departments of Public Health and Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, USA.
5
Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL.
6
San Francisco Department of Public Health, Division of HIV, Infectious Diseases and Global Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA.
7
Whitman-Walker Health, Washington, DC.
8
Bridge HIV, San Francisco Department of Public Health.
9
Departments of Medicine, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco San Francisco, CA.
10
Division of AIDS, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
11
Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL.
12
Providence Hospital Department of Infectious Disease, George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC.
13
Kidney Health Research Collaborative, San Francisco VA Medical Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.
14
Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) using daily oral tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) is effective for preventing HIV acquisition, but concerns remain about its potential kidney toxicity. This study examined kidney function in individuals using PrEP in real-world clinical settings.

SETTING:

Demonstration project in 2 sexually transmitted infection clinics and a community health center.

METHODS:

We evaluated kidney function among men who have sex with men and transgender women taking tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate/emtricitabine PrEP for up to 48 weeks. Serum creatinine and urine dipstick for protein were obtained at 12-week intervals. Kidney function was estimated using creatinine clearance (CrCl) (Cockcroft-Gault) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (CKD-EPI).

RESULTS:

From October 2012 to January 2014, we enrolled 557 participants (median age 33). Mean creatinine increased from baseline to week 12 by 0.03 mg/dL (4.6%) (P < 0.0001); mean CrCl decreased by 4.8 mL/min (3.0%) (P < 0.0001). These changes remained stable through week 48 (P = 0.81, P = 0.71 respectively). There were 75/478 (15.7%) participants who developed worsening proteinuria at week 12 compared with baseline (P < 0.0001), and this percent remained stable through week 48 (P = 0.73). Twenty-five participants (5.1%) developed new-onset eGFR <70 mL/min/1.73 m; independent predictors of this outcome were age ≥40 years (OR 3.79, 95% CI: 1.43 to 10.03) and baseline eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m (OR 9.59, 3.69-24.94).

CONCLUSIONS:

In a demonstration setting, daily tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate/emtricitabine PrEP leads to reduced CrCl and eGFR; however, these eGFR changes are based on very small changes in serum creatinine and seem to be nonprogressive after the first 12 weeks. Future studies are needed to understand the prognostic significance of these small changes.

PMID:
28991887
PMCID:
PMC5762266
DOI:
10.1097/QAI.0000000000001566
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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