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Am J Hypertens. 2017 Dec 8;31(1):48-52. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpx128.

Blood Pressure Variability Predicts Adverse Events and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Post-Hoc Analysis of the SPRINT Trial.

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Department of Internal Medicine, Einstein Medical Center, USA.
Heart and Vascular Institute, Division of Cardiology, Einstein Medical Center, USA.
Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Drexel University College of Medicine, USA.
Department of Medicine, Einstein Medical Center, USA.
Sidney Kimmel College of Thomas Jefferson University, USA.



Visit-to-visit blood pressure variability has been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Using the SPRINT trial data set, we explored the relationship between blood pressure variability, cardiovascular outcomes, and hypoperfusion-related adverse events of antihypertensive therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) enrolled in the study.


The analyses included patients with CKD randomized in SPRINT who reached the target systolic blood pressure for their respective groups (intensive <120 mm Hg; standard <140 mm Hg). Coefficients of variation (CV) for diastolic blood pressure (DBP) for each subject characterized variability. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify independent predictors of the SPRINT primary outcome (including acute coronary syndrome, stroke, acute heart failure, and death from cardiovascular causes) and the 3 major side effects of therapy-hypotension, syncope, and acute kidney injury (AKI). P <0.15 on univariate analysis was required to enter the model, and P <0.05 to remain in it.


Overall, 2,488 subjects (1,273 standard; 1,124 intensive) met inclusion criteria. DBP CV predicted a greater hazard for primary outcome (hazard ratio [HR] 1.126, P < 0.0001) in the overall model as well as in separate analyses by treatment arms (standard group HR 1.107, P < 0.0001; intensive group HR 1.100, P = 0.0004). DBP CV also independently predicted a greater hazard for AKI (HR 1.117), syncope (HR 1.111), and hypotensive events (HR 1.104).


Visit-to-visit DBP variability independently predicts worse cardiovascular outcomes and hypoperfusion-related adverse events in patients with CKD enrolled in SPRINT.


blood pressure; blood pressure variability; chronic kidney disease; hypertension

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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