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PLoS Pathog. 2017 Oct 6;13(10):e1006674. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006674. eCollection 2017 Oct.

Enterovirus 71 protease 2Apro and 3Cpro differentially inhibit the cellular endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway via distinct mechanisms, and enterovirus 71 hijacks ERAD component p97 to promote its replication.

Author information

1
MOH Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, PR China.
2
Center for Biological Imaging, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, PR China.
3
MOH Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens and Christophe Mérieux Laboratory, IPB, CAMS-Fondation Mérieux, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, PR China.
4
Center of Clinical Immunology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, PR China.
5
CAMS-Oxford University International Center for Translational Immunology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, PR China.

Abstract

Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) is an important function for cellular homeostasis. The mechanism of how picornavirus infection interferes with ERAD remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection significantly inhibits cellular ERAD by targeting multiple key ERAD molecules with its proteases 2Apro and 3Cpro using different mechanisms. Ubc6e was identified as the key E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme in EV71 disturbed ERAD. EV71 3Cpro cleaves Ubc6e at Q219G, Q260S, and Q273G. EV71 2Apro mainly inhibits the de novo synthesis of key ERAD molecules Herp and VIMP at the protein translational level. Herp differentially participates in the degradation of different glycosylated ERAD substrates α-1 antitrypsin Null Hong Kong (NHK) and the C-terminus of sonic hedgehog (SHH-C) via unknown mechanisms. p97 was identified as a host factor in EV71 replication; it redistributed and co-exists with the viral protein and other known replication-related molecules in EV71-induced replication organelles. Electron microscopy and multiple-color confocal assays also showed that EV71-induced membranous vesicles were closely associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and the ER membrane molecule RTN3 was redistributed to the viral replication complex during EV71 infection. Therefore, we propose that EV71 rearranges ER membranes and hijacks p97 from cellular ERAD to benefit its replication. These findings add to our understanding of how viruses disturb ERAD and provide potential anti-viral targets for EV71 infection.

PMID:
28985237
PMCID:
PMC5650186
DOI:
10.1371/journal.ppat.1006674
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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