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Ann Plast Surg. 2018 Mar;80(3):212-216. doi: 10.1097/SAP.0000000000001220.

Surgeon-Controlled Comparison of Direct-to-Implant and 2-Stage Tissue Expander-Implant Immediate Breast Reconstruction Outcomes.

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From the Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Summa Health System, Akron, OH.



Current literature comparing outcomes of immediate breast reconstruction using direct-to-implant (DTI) single-stage and 2-stage tissue expanders (TEs) is conflicting. This study compared overall outcomes and determined predictive patient factors associated with higher complication rates.


After institutional review board approval, a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients who underwent immediate breast reconstruction from 2010 to 2014 at a single hospital was performed. Demographic data and complications were recorded and compared using univariate analysis. Infection was defined as any patient receiving antibiotics beyond the expected postoperative course or restarting antibiotics for a suspected infection.


Seventy-nine breasts (50 patients) underwent immediate breast reconstruction using tissue expansion, and 117 breasts (69 patients) underwent immediate breast reconstruction using the DTI technique. Overall complications, infection rate, and rate of aesthetic revisions were higher in the TE group compared with the DTI group. There was no difference in rates of seroma, hematoma, and mastectomy skin flap necrosis between the 2 groups. Infectious complications were significantly higher in patients with body mass index of greater than 30 who underwent TE-based reconstruction than those who underwent DTI-based reconstruction.


Single-stage DTI immediate breast reconstruction has less overall complications than 2-stage TE-based immediate reconstruction. Direct-to-implant immediate breast reconstruction may provide favorable outcomes in patients with body mass index of greater than 30.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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