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J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2017;63(4):256-262. doi: 10.3177/jnsv.63.256.

Cooking Methods for a Soft Diet Using Chicken Based on Food Texture Analysis.

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Graduate School of Nutrition and Bioscience, Tokushima University.
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Doshisha Women's College of Liberal Arts.
Long-Term Care Health Facility Nukumorinosato.
Department of Health Sciences, Prefectural University of Hiroshima.


Undernutrition caused by difficulties in masticating is of growing concern among the elderly. Soft diets are often served at nursing homes; however, the styles differ with nursing homes. Improperly modified food texture and consistency may lead to further loss of nutritive value. Therefore, we developed a method to produce a soft diet using chicken. The texture-modified chicken was prepared by boiling a mixture of minced chicken and additive foodstuff that softened the meat. The best food additive was determined through testing cooking process, size after modification and texture. The optimum proportions of each component in the mixture were determined measuring food texture using a creep meter. Teriyaki chicken was cooked using the texture-modified chicken, and provided to a nursing home. The amount of food intake by elderly residents was subsequently surveyed. This study involved 22 residents (1 man and 21 women; mean age 91.4±5.3 y). Consequently, yakifu, which was made from wheat gluten, was the most suitable additive foodstuff. The hardness of the texture-modified chicken, with proportions of minced chicken, yakifu, and water being 50%, 10%, and 40% respectively, was under 40,000 N/m2. The intake amount of the texture-modified chicken of subjects whose intake amount of conventional chicken using chicken thigh was not 100% was significantly higher. These findings suggest that properly modified food textures could contribute to improve the quality of meals by preventing undernutrition among the elderly with mastication difficulties.


elderly; food texture; intake amount; soft diet

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