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Acta Virol. 1988 Jan;32(1):6-18.

De novo initiation of specific cell-mediated immune responsiveness in chickens by transfer factor (specific immunity inducer) obtained from bovine colostrum and milk.

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Amtron, Inc., Charleston, South Carolina.


Transfer factors (TF) were prepared from colostrum and milk of bovines previously immunized with antigens obtained from Coccidioides immitis, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, or from the viral agents responsible for avian Newcastle disease, laryngotracheitis disease or infectious bursal disease. The ability of bovine TF to transfer specific cell-mediated immune responsiveness to a markedly xenogenic species was studied using specific pathogen free (SPF) and standard commercial (SC) chickens as model recipients. Cell-mediated immune responsiveness was documented using one or more of the following for each antigen (organism) studied: (a) an in vitro chicken leukocyte (heterophil) migration inhibition assay; (b) delayed-wattle reactivity; or (c) protection from clinical disease. Chicken TFs obtained from spleens of immune donors were evaluated in parallel to bovine TF's in selected comparative studies. Bovine TF also referred to as specific immunity inducer (SII), and chicken TF were found to initiate antigen-specific cell-mediated immunity de novo in previously non-immune SPF chickens as well as in SC chickens despite the presence of maternally acquired humoral antibody which may serve as a "barrier" to immunization of SC chickens when commercially available vaccines are administered by parenteral routes. Bovine TF's specific for laryngotracheitis virus or infectious bursal disease virus afforded protection equal to that found for commercially available vaccines. Bovine TF's action was rapid (less than a day) and of relatively long duration at least 35 days.

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