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Twin Res Hum Genet. 2017 Oct;20(5):395-405. doi: 10.1017/thg.2017.49.

Education in Twins and Their Parents Across Birth Cohorts Over 100 years: An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 42-Twin Cohorts.

Author information

1
Department of Social Research,University of Helsinki,Helsinki,Finland.
2
Institute for Molecular Medicine FIMM,Helsinki,Finland.
3
Department of Public Health Nursing,Osaka City University,Osaka,Japan.
4
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics,Karolinska Institutet,Stockholm,Sweden.
5
Centre of Human Genetics,University Hospitals Leuven,Leuven,Belgium.
6
The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine,The Mindich Child Health and Development Institute,Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai,New York,NY,USA.
7
Department of Psychology,MSB Medical School Berlin,School of Health and Medicine,Berlin,Germany.
8
Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine,Osaka University,Osaka,Japan.
9
Department of Genetics,Physical Anthropology and Animal Physiology,University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU,Leioa,Spain.
10
Istituto Superiore di Sanità - Centre for Behavioural Sciences and Mental Health,Rome,Italy.
11
Department of Education,Mokpo National University,Jeonnam,South Korea.
12
The Australian Twin Registry,Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics,The University of Melbourne,Melbourne,Australia.
13
HealthTwiSt GmbH,Berlin,Germany.
14
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciencies,Boston University,Boston,MA,USA.
15
Department of Noncommunicable Diseases Prevention,Qingdao Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Qingdao,China.
16
Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences,Indiana University,Bloomington,IN,USA.
17
Department of Preventive Medicine,Keck School of Medicine of USC,University of Southern California,Los Angeles,CA,USA.
18
Institute of Research & Development,Battaramulla,Sri Lanka.
19
NIHR Mental Health Biomedical Research Centre,South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust,and Institute of Psychiatry,Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London,London,UK.
20
MRC Social,Genetic & Developmental Psychiatry Centre,Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London,London,UK.
21
Department of Epidemiology,School of Public Health,Seoul National University,Seoul,South Korea.
22
Department of Health and Exercise Sciences and Colorado School of Public Health,Colorado State University,Fort Collins,CO,USA.
23
Psychology and Neuroscience,Duke University,Durham,NC,USA.
24
Department of Public Health,Epidemiology,Biostatistics and Biodemography,University of Southern Denmark,Odense,Denmark.
25
Department of Public Health,Qingdao University Medical College,Qingdao,China.
26
Health Behaviour Research Centre,Department of Epidemiology and Public Health,Institute of Epidemiology and Health Care, University College London,London,UK.
27
Michigan State University,East Lansing,MI,USA.
28
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem,Jerusalem,Israel.
29
Hadassah Hospital Obstetrics and Gynecology Department,Hebrew University Medical School,Jerusalem,Israel.
30
Genetic Epidemiology Department,QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute,Brisbane,Australia.
31
Molecular Epidemiology Department,QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute,Brisbane,Australia.
32
Institute for Behavioral Genetics,University of Colorado,Boulder,CO,USA.
33
Department of Statistics,Faculty of Arts and Sciences,Kırıkkale University,Kırıkkale,Turkey.
34
Psychology and African American Studies,Virginia Commonwealth University,Richmond,VA,USA.
35
Department of Psychology,University of Minnesota,Minneapolis,MN,USA.
36
Department of Biological Psychology,VU University Amsterdam,Amsterdam,the Netherlands.
37
Department of Human and Molecular Genetics,Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University,Richmond,VA,USA.
38
Department of Human and Molecular Genetics,Psychiatry and Massey Cancer Center,Virginia Commonwealth University,Richmond,VA,USA.
39
Norwegian Institute of Public Health,Oslo,Norway.
40
Lund University,Lund,Sweden.
41
Department of Public Health Sciences,Karolinska Institutet,Stockholm,Sweden.
42
Department of Psychology,University of Southern California,Los Angeles,CA,USA.
43
Department of Human Anatomy and Psychobiology,University of Murcia,Murcia,Spain.
44
Health and Medicine Division,The National Academies of Sciences,Engineering, and Medicine,Washington,DC,USA.
45
Department of Epidemiology,School of Public Health,University of Washington,Seattle,WA,USA.
46
Department of Psychology,University of Texas at Austin,Austin,TX,USA.
47
Washington State Twin Registry,Washington State University - Health Sciences Spokane,Spokane,WA,USA.
48
Department of Radiology,Semmelweis University,Budapest,Hungary.
49
Department of Psychiatry,University of California,San Diego,CA,USA.
50
Department of Psychology,Boston University,Boston,MA,USA.
51
CIFI2D,Faculty of Sport,University of Porto,Porto,Portugal.
52
Department of Physical Education and Sport,University of Madeira,Funchal,Portugal.
53
Department of Psychology,University of Virginia,Charlottesville,VA,USA.
54
Novo Nordisk Foundation Centre for Basic Metabolic Research (Section on Metabolic Genetics),and Department of Public Health,Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences,University of Copenhagen,Copenhagen,Denmark.

Abstract

Whether monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins differ from each other in a variety of phenotypes is important for genetic twin modeling and for inferences made from twin studies in general. We analyzed whether there were differences in individual, maternal and paternal education between MZ and DZ twins in a large pooled dataset. Information was gathered on individual education for 218,362 adult twins from 27 twin cohorts (53% females; 39% MZ twins), and on maternal and paternal education for 147,315 and 143,056 twins respectively, from 28 twin cohorts (52% females; 38% MZ twins). Together, we had information on individual or parental education from 42 twin cohorts representing 19 countries. The original education classifications were transformed to education years and analyzed using linear regression models. Overall, MZ males had 0.26 (95% CI [0.21, 0.31]) years and MZ females 0.17 (95% CI [0.12, 0.21]) years longer education than DZ twins. The zygosity difference became smaller in more recent birth cohorts for both males and females. Parental education was somewhat longer for fathers of DZ twins in cohorts born in 1990-1999 (0.16 years, 95% CI [0.08, 0.25]) and 2000 or later (0.11 years, 95% CI [0.00, 0.22]), compared with fathers of MZ twins. The results show that the years of both individual and parental education are largely similar in MZ and DZ twins. We suggest that the socio-economic differences between MZ and DZ twins are so small that inferences based upon genetic modeling of twin data are not affected.

KEYWORDS:

education; parental education; twins; zygosity

PMID:
28975875
PMCID:
PMC5969906
DOI:
10.1017/thg.2017.49
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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