Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Nephropathol. 2017 Jul;6(3):196-203. doi: 10.15171/jnp.2017.33. Epub 2017 Feb 3.

Clustering of chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular risk factors in South-West Nigeria.

Author information

1
Renal Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Federal Teaching Hospital, Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria.
2
Metabolic and Endocrinology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.
3
Renal Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.
4
Cardiology Unit, College of Health Sciences, Osun state University, Osogbo, Nigeria.
5
Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

There exists a synergy between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) with increased morbidity and poor outcomes.

OBJECTIVES:

Data relating to this clustering in black homogenous populations is scanty. We aim to investigate this relationship in Nigerian communities.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

It was a cross-sectional observation study from semi-urban communities in South-West Nigeria. We used modified World Health Organization (WHO) questionnaire on chronic diseases (WHO STEPS) to gather information on socio-demographic data, biophysical and clinical characteristics. Biochemical analysis of plasma samples was done.

RESULTS:

We analyzed data of 1084 with mean age of 56.3 ± 19.9 years (33.4% female). Prevalence of stage 3 CKD was 14.2% (3a and 3b were 10.3% and 3% respectively). Prevalence of hypertension (systolic and diastolic blood pressure) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased as clustering of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors (CVFRs) increased both in CKD and proteinuria (P < 0.05). CKD prevalence increases with number of risk factors. There was an inverse relationship between increasing risk factors and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (P < 0.05). Clustering at least 2 CVRFs in the population with CKD compared to those without CKD was significantly higher (76.6% vs. 65.1%, OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2-2.6, P = 0.005). Similarly, in a univariate analysis, albuminuria had an increased odds of clustering (69.7% vs. 59.6%, OR: 1.9, 95% CI 0.6-6.2, P = 0.409). Using multivariate logistic analysis, there is significantly increased odds of clustering when eGFR is <45 mL/min/1.73 m2 (OR: 2.66, 95% CI: 1.12-6.32) and microalbuminuria 1.74 (95% CI: 1.10-2.75).

CONCLUSIONS:

Reduced kidney function and proteinuria significantly clustered with CVRFs. This data suggests that individuals with CV clusters should be screened for CKD or vice versa and they should be considered for prompt management of their CVRFs.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiovascular risk factors; Chronic kidney disease; Clustering

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center