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Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 3;7(1):12630. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-12813-6.

Phylogeographic and genome-wide investigations of Vietnam ethnic groups reveal signatures of complex historical demographic movements.

Author information

1
Unidade de Xenética, Departamento de Anatomía Patolóxica e Ciencias Forenses, Instituto de Ciencias Forenses, Facultade de Medicina, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain.
2
GenPoB Research Group, Instituto de Investigaciones Sanitarias (IDIS), Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago, Galicia, Spain.
3
Translational Pediatrics and Infectious Diseases, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
4
GENVIP Research Group, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago, Galicia, Spain.
5
Equipo Argentino de Antropología Forense, Independencia, 644, Córdoba, Argentina.
6
Grupo de Investigación en Genética Forense - Instituto Nacional de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses, Bogotá, Colombia.
7
National Institute of Forensic Medicine, Ministry of Health, Ha Noi, Vietnam.
8
Unidade de Xenética, Departamento de Anatomía Patolóxica e Ciencias Forenses, Instituto de Ciencias Forenses, Facultade de Medicina, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain. antonio.salas@usc.es.
9
GenPoB Research Group, Instituto de Investigaciones Sanitarias (IDIS), Hospital Clínico Universitario de Santiago, Galicia, Spain. antonio.salas@usc.es.

Abstract

The territory of present-day Vietnam was the cradle of one of the world's earliest civilizations, and one of the first world regions to develop agriculture. We analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) complete control region of six ethnic groups and the mitogenomes from Vietnamese in The 1000 Genomes Project (1000G). Genome-wide data from 1000G (~55k SNPs) were also investigated to explore different demographic scenarios. All Vietnamese carry South East Asian (SEA) haplotypes, which show a moderate geographic and ethnic stratification, with the Mong constituting the most distinctive group. Two new mtDNA clades (M7b1a1f1 and F1f1) point to historical gene flow between the Vietnamese and other neighboring countries. Bayesian-based inferences indicate a time-deep and continuous population growth of Vietnamese, although with some exceptions. The dramatic population decrease experienced by the Cham 700 years ago (ya) fits well with the Nam tiến ("southern expansion") southwards from their original heartland in the Red River Delta. Autosomal SNPs consistently point to important historical gene flow within mainland SEA, and add support to a main admixture event occurring between Chinese and a southern Asian ancestral composite (mainly represented by the Malay). This admixture event occurred ~800 ya, again coinciding with the Nam tiến.

PMID:
28974757
PMCID:
PMC5626762
DOI:
10.1038/s41598-017-12813-6
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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