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Foods. 2017 Oct 2;6(10). pii: E87. doi: 10.3390/foods6100087.

The Availability of Slow and Fast Calories in the Dutch Diet: The Current Situation and Opportunities for Interventions.

Author information

1
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, 6700AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. janet.vandenboer@wur.nl.
2
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, 6700AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. melanie.werts@wur.nl.
3
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, 6700AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. els.siebelink@wur.nl.
4
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, 6700AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. kees.degraaf@wur.nl.
5
Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, 6700AA Wageningen, The Netherlands. monica.mars@wur.nl.

Abstract

Choosing foods that require more time to consume and have a low energy density might constitute an effective strategy to control energy intake, because of their satiating capacity. The current study assessed the eating rate of Dutch food, and investigated the associations between eating rate and other food properties. We also explored the opportunities for a diet with a low energy intake rate (kJ/min). Laboratory data on the eating rate of 240 foods-representing the whole Dutch diet-was obtained. The results show a wide variation in both eating rate (from 2 g/min for rice waffle to 641 g/min for apple juice) and energy intake rate (from 0 kJ/min (0 kcal/min) for water to 1766 kJ/min (422 kcal/min) for chocolate milk). Eating rate was lower when foods were more solid. Moreover, eating rate was positively associated with water content and inversely with energy density. Energy intake rate differed substantially between and within food groups, demonstrating that the available foods provide opportunities for selecting alternatives with a lower energy intake rate. These findings offer guidance when selecting foods to reduce energy intake.

KEYWORDS:

energy density; food form; ingestion behavior; microstructure of eating; oral processing; satiety; speed; weight management

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