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Environ Res. 2018 Jan;160:97-106. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.09.018. Epub 2017 Sep 30.

Prenatal exposure to mercury and longitudinally assessed fetal growth: Relation and effect modifiers.

Author information

1
Nursing School, Universitat de València, Valencia, Spain; FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València Joint Research Unit of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Valencia, Spain; Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Spain. Electronic address: ballester_fer@gva.es.
2
FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València Joint Research Unit of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Valencia, Spain; Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Spain.
3
Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Spain; FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València Joint Research Unit of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Valencia, Spain.
4
Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Spain; Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain; ISGlobal, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona, Spain; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry/Psychology, Erasmus University Medical Centre-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
5
Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, San Sebastián, Spain; Health Research Institute (BIODONOSTIA), San Sebastián, Spain.
6
FISABIO-Universitat Jaume I-Universitat de València Joint Research Unit of Epidemiology and Environmental Health, Valencia, Spain; Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Spain; Medicine Department, Universitat Jaume I, Castelló de la Plana, Spain.
7
Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Spain; Universidad Miguel Hernández, San Juan de Alicante, Spain.
8
Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Spain; Universidad del País Vasco, Spain.
9
Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Spain; IUOPA, Departamento de Medicina, Universidad de Oviedo, Spain.
10
Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Spain.
11
Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Spain; Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain; ISGlobal, Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Barcelona, Spain.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Prenatal mercury exposure has been related to reductions in anthropometry at birth. Levels of mercury have been reported as being relatively elevated in the Spanish population.

OBJECTIVE:

To investigate the relation between prenatal exposure to mercury and fetal growth.

METHODS:

Study subjects were pregnant women and their newborns (n:1867) participating in a population-based birth cohort study set up in four Spanish regions from the INMA Project. Biparietal diameter (BPD), femur length (FL), abdominal circumference (AC), and estimated fetal weight (EFW) were measured by ultrasounds at 12, 20, and 34 weeks of gestation. Size at and growth between these points were assessed by standard deviation (SD) scores adjusted for constitutional characteristics. Total mercury (T-Hg) was determined in cord blood. Associations were investigated by linear regression models, adjusted by sociodemographic, environmental, nutritional - including four seafood groups - and lifestyle-related variables in each sub-cohort. Final estimates were obtained using meta-analysis. Effect modification by sex, seafood intake and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153 concentration was assessed.

RESULTS:

Geometric mean of cord blood T-Hg was 8.2μg/L. All the estimates of the association between prenatal Hg and growth from 0 to 12 weeks showed reductions in SD-scores, which were only statistically significant for BPD. A doubling of cord blood T-Hg was associated with a 0.58% reduction in size of BPD at week 12 (95% confidence interval -CI-: - 1.10, - 0.07). Size at week 34 showed estimates suggestive of a small reduction in EFW, i.e., a doubling of T-Hg levels was associated with a reduction of 0.38% (95% CI: - 0.91, 0.15). An interaction between PCB153 and T-Hg was found, with statistically significant negative associations of T-Hg with AC and EFW in late pregnancy among participants with PCB153 below the median.

CONCLUSIONS:

Exposure to mercury during pregnancy was associated with early reductions in BPD. Moreover, an antagonism with PCB 153 was observed with noteworthy reductions late in pregnancy in AC and EFW in the group with lower PCB153.

KEYWORDS:

Fetal growth; Mercury; Polychlorinated biphenyl 153; Pregnancy; Seafood consumption

PMID:
28968527
DOI:
10.1016/j.envres.2017.09.018
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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