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J Lab Physicians. 2017 Oct-Dec;9(4):264-268. doi: 10.4103/JLP.JLP_149_16.

Changing prevalence and antibiotic drug resistance pattern of pathogens seen in community-acquired pediatric urinary tract infections at a tertiary care hospital of North India.

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Division of Clinical Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.



The aim and objective of this study was to assess the temporal changes in the microbiological profiles and antimicrobial resistance patterns of uropathogens in pediatric community-acquired UTI.


This is a retrospective analysis of data collected over a Scattered period of 5 years. The baseline data collected were from January to December 2009, and the second period considered for comparison was from January to December 2014. Urine specimens from children (<17 years) suspected of UTI were cultured by a semi-quantitative method on cysteine lactose electrolyte-deficient medium. Antibiotic sensitivity was put up by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines.


In the year 2009, 340 of 2104 (16.15%) urine specimens yielded significant colony count, whereas in 2014, it was 407 of 2212 (18.39%) (P = 0.051). Escherichia coli was the predominant pathogen and was significantly more prevalent in girls than in boys (P < 0.0001) during both periods. There was a significant overall increase in resistance to ampicillin (from 40.29% to 58.72%), amoxyclav (from 26.17% to 40.54%), nitrofurantoin (from 28.82% to 39.06%), and norfloxacin (from 30% to 41.42%). However, the maximum increase in the resistance was noted for co-trimoxazole from 35.58% in 2009 to 63.39% in 2014 (P = 0.0000058). The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) has also significantly increased from 21.7% to 33.16% (P = 0.0045).


Although E. coli remains the prime pathogen in pediatric UTI, the prevalence of resistance has dramatically increased over the 5-year study period. Our study highlights the emergence of community-acquired ESBL-producing uropathogens in children proclaiming treatment challenges.


Antimicrobials; children; extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers; microbiological profile; resistance pattern; urinary tract infection

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