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J Agric Food Chem. 2017 Oct 25;65(42):9186-9190. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b03441. Epub 2017 Oct 12.

Nitrogen-to-Protein Conversion Factors for Crop Residues and Animal Manure Common in China.

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Biomass and Bioresource Utilization Laboratory, College of Engineering, China Agricultural University , Beijing 100083, P.R. China.


Accurately determining protein content is essential in exploiting biomass as feed and fuel. A survey of biomass samples in China indicated protein contents from 2.65 to 3.98% for crop residues and from 6.07 to 10.24% for animal manure of dry basis. Conversion factors based on amino acid nitrogen (kA) ranged from 5.42 to 6.00 for the former and from 4.78 to 5.36 for the latter, indicating that the traditional factor of 6.25 is not suitable for biomass samples. On the other hand, conversion factors from Kjeldahl nitrogen (kP) ranged from 3.97 to 4.57 and from 2.76 to 4.31 for crop residues and animal manure, respectively. Of note, conversion factors were strongly affected by amino acid composition and levels of nonprotein nitrogen. Thus, kP values of 4.23 for crop residues, 4.11 for livestock manure, and 3.11 for poultry manure are recommended to better estimate protein content from total nitrogen.


amide acid; animal manure; crop residues; nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor; protein

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