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Food Res Int. 2017 Oct;100(Pt 3):404-410. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2017.03.044. Epub 2017 Mar 25.

Polyphenolic profile and antioxidant activities of Madeiran elderberry (Sambucus lanceolata) as affected by simulated in vitro digestion.

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CQM - Centro de Química da Madeira, Universidade da Madeira, Campus da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal, Portugal.
University of Castilla-La Mancha, Regional Institute for Applied Chemistry Research (IRICA), Ciudad Real 13071, Spain.
Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, University of Jaén, Campus Las Lagunillas S/N, E-23071 Jaén, Spain.
CQM - Centro de Química da Madeira, Universidade da Madeira, Campus da Penteada, 9020-105 Funchal, Portugal. Electronic address:


The aims of this study were twofold: a) to provide a detailed report on the phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of fresh berries and leaves of Sambucus lanceolata (Madeiran elderberry); b) to study the effects caused by a simulated in vitro digestion on the composition and antioxidant activity of the berries and leaves. Seventy-seven phytochemicals, mainly polyphenols, were identified in the methanol extracts of fresh berries and leaves, with the content of polyphenols higher in berries (27.2mg·g-1 dry extract, DE) than in leaves (25.9mg·g-1 DE). Anthocyanins were dominant in berries, while hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) and flavonols were abundant in leaves. Higher antioxidant activities were found in leaves than in berries, using several in vitro assays. After the simulated in vitro digestion, the levels of polyphenols were significantly reduced, in particular those of berries (81.8% decrease). Anthocyanins were the most affected compounds during the simulated digestion. However, despite the significant loss of phenolic compounds during digestion, methanol extracts of digested berries and leaves were still able to scavenge free-radicals. Hence, the consumption of leaves and/or berries of S. lanceolata may help prevent oxidative stress.


4-O-Caffeoylquinic acid (PubChem CID: 9798666); 5-Feruloylquinic acid (PubChem CID: 15901362); Antioxidant activity; Caffeic acid (PubChem CID: 689043); Chlorogenic acid (PubChem CID: 1794427); Cyanidin (PubChem CID: 128861); Ellagic acid (PubChem CID: 5281855); In vitro digestion; Leaves; Polyphenols; Quercetin (PubChem CID: 5280343); Roseoside (PubChem CID: 9930064); Sambucus lanceolata; Whole fruit; p-Coumaric acid (PubChem CID: 637542)

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