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Sci Rep. 2017 Sep 29;7(1):12470. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-12766-w.

Apontic directly activates hedgehog and cyclin E for proper organ growth and patterning.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Developmental Genetics, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong, 271018, China.
2
Department of Developmental Genetics, National Institute of Genetics, Mishima, Shizuoka, 411-8540, Japan. shirose@nig.ac.jp.
3
Laboratory of Developmental Genetics, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, Shandong, 271018, China. liuqingxin@sdau.edu.cn.

Abstract

Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway and Cyclin E are key players in cell proliferation and organ development. Hyperactivation of hh and cyclin E has been linked to several types of cancer. However, coordination of the expression of hh and cyclin E was not well understood. Here we show that an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Apontic (Apt) directly activates hh and cyclin E through its binding site in the promoter regions of hh and cyclin E. This Apt-dependent proper expression of hh and cyclin E is required for cell proliferation and development of the Drosophila wing. Furthermore, Fibrinogen silencer-binding protein (FSBP), a mammalian homolog of Apt, also positively regulates Sonic hh (Shh), Desert hh (Dhh), Cyclin E1 (CCNE1) and Cyclin E2 (CCNE2) in cultured human cells, suggesting evolutionary conservation of the mechanism. Apt-mediated expression of hh and cyclin E can direct proliferation of Hh-expressing cells and simultaneous growth, patterning and differentiation of Hh-recipient cells. The discovery of the simultaneous expression of Hh and principal cell-cycle regulator Cyclin E by Apt implicates insight into the mechanism by which deregulated hh and cyclin E promotes tumor formation.

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