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Harmful Algae. 2017 Sep;68:178-191. doi: 10.1016/j.hal.2017.08.006. Epub 2017 Aug 29.

Interactions between the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Takayama helix and common heterotrophic protists.

Author information

1
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.
2
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea; Advanced Institutes of Convergence Technology, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do, 16229, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: hjjeong@snu.ac.kr.
3
School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea; Brain Korea 21 plus, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.

Abstract

The phototrophic dinoflagellate Takayama helix that is known to be harmful to abalone larvae has recently been revealed to be mixotrophic. Although mixotrophy elevates the growth rate of T. helix by 79%-185%, its absolute growth rate is still as low as 0.3d-1. Thus, if the mortality rate of T. helix due to predation is high, this dinoflagellate may not easily prevail. To investigate potential effective protistan grazers on T. helix, feeding by diverse heterotrophic dinoflagellates such as engulfment-feeding Oxyrrhis marina, Gyrodinium dominans, Gyrodinium moestrupii, Polykrikos kofoidii, and Noctiluca scintillans, peduncle-feeding Aduncodinium glandula, Gyrodiniellum shiwhaense, Luciella masanensis, and Pfiesteria piscicida, pallium-feeding Oblea rotunda and Protoperidinium pellucidum, and the naked ciliates Pelagostrobilidium sp. (ca. 40μm in cell length) and Strombidinopsis sp. (ca. 150μm in cell length) on T. helix was explored. Among the tested heterotrophic protists, O. marina, G. dominans, G. moestrupii, A. glandula, L. masanensis, P. kofoidii, P. piscicida, and Strombidinopsis sp. were able to feed on T. helix. The growth rates of all these predators except Strombidinopsis sp. with T. helix prey were lower than those without the prey. The growth rate of Strombidinopsis sp. on T. helix was almost zero although the growth rate of Strombidinopsis sp. with T. helix prey was higher than those without the prey. Moreover, T. helix fed on O. marina and P. pellucidum and lysed the cells of P. kofoidii and G. shiwhaense. With increasing the concentrations of T. helix, the growth rates of O. marina and P. kofoidii decreased, but those of G. dominans and L. masanensis largely did not change. Therefore, reciprocal predation, lysis, no feeding, and the low ingestion rates of the common protists preying on T. helix may result in a low mortality rate due to predation, thereby compensating for this species' low growth rate.

KEYWORDS:

Feeding; Growth; Harmful algal bloom; Ingestion; Red tide

PMID:
28962979
DOI:
10.1016/j.hal.2017.08.006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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