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Toxicol Rep. 2014 Jul 15;1:385-390. doi: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.06.011. eCollection 2014.

Anti-inflammatory potential of native Australian herbs polyphenols.

Author information

1
CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences, 11 Julius Avenue, Riverside Life Science Centre, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia.
2
Food Science and Technology, School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

Abstract

The anti-inflammatory potential of hydrophilic polyphenolic-rich extracts obtained from native Australian herbs: anise myrtle, lemon myrtle and Tasmannia pepper leaf, and a reference sample bay leaf, was evaluated using the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 model. Pretreatment with all herbal extracts at non-cytotoxic concentrations reduced the LPS-induced protein levels of pro-inflammatory enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Concomitant decrease in accumulation of their products, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO), respectively, was observed. A suppression of LPS-induced expression of COX-2 and iNOS and decrease of NO and PGE2 levels suggests potential anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts. Anise myrtle, lemon myrtle and bay leaf selectively inhibited COX-2 and iNOS enzymes, while Tasmannia pepper leaf extract exhibited a pronounced inhibitory activity toward COX-1 and was the least effective inhibitor of iNOS. Anise myrtle and lemon myrtle are potentially more efficient anti-inflammatory agents than Tasmannia pepper leaf.

KEYWORDS:

Anise myrtle; COX-1; COX-2; Herbs; Lemon myrtle; Polyphenols; Tasmannia pepper leaf; iNOS

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