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Toxicol Rep. 2014 Jul 15;1:385-390. doi: 10.1016/j.toxrep.2014.06.011. eCollection 2014.

Anti-inflammatory potential of native Australian herbs polyphenols.

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CSIRO Food and Nutritional Sciences, 11 Julius Avenue, Riverside Life Science Centre, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia.
Food Science and Technology, School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.


The anti-inflammatory potential of hydrophilic polyphenolic-rich extracts obtained from native Australian herbs: anise myrtle, lemon myrtle and Tasmannia pepper leaf, and a reference sample bay leaf, was evaluated using the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 model. Pretreatment with all herbal extracts at non-cytotoxic concentrations reduced the LPS-induced protein levels of pro-inflammatory enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Concomitant decrease in accumulation of their products, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO), respectively, was observed. A suppression of LPS-induced expression of COX-2 and iNOS and decrease of NO and PGE2 levels suggests potential anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts. Anise myrtle, lemon myrtle and bay leaf selectively inhibited COX-2 and iNOS enzymes, while Tasmannia pepper leaf extract exhibited a pronounced inhibitory activity toward COX-1 and was the least effective inhibitor of iNOS. Anise myrtle and lemon myrtle are potentially more efficient anti-inflammatory agents than Tasmannia pepper leaf.


Anise myrtle; COX-1; COX-2; Herbs; Lemon myrtle; Polyphenols; Tasmannia pepper leaf; iNOS

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