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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2017 Dec 1;72(12):3252-3257. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkx292.

Novel multiresistance cfr plasmids in linezolid-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) from a hospital outbreak: co-location of cfr and optrA in VRE.

Author information

1
Microbiology Research Unit, Dublin Dental University Hospital, University of Dublin, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
2
Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare Infections Reference Unit, National Infection Service, Public Health England, London, UK.
3
Department of Clinical Microbiology, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.
4
National MRSA Reference Laboratory, St James's Hospital, James's St, Dublin, Ireland.

Abstract

Background:

Linezolid is often the drug of last resort to treat infections caused by Gram-positive cocci. Linezolid resistance can be mutational (23S rRNA or L-protein) or, less commonly, acquired [predominantly cfr, conferring resistance to phenicols, lincosamides, oxazolidinones, pleuromutilins and streptogramin A compounds (PhLOPSA) or optrA, encoding oxazolidinone and phenicol resistance].

Objectives:

To investigate the clonality and genetic basis of linezolid resistance in 13 linezolid-resistant (LZDR) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) isolates recovered during a 2013/14 outbreak in an ICU in an Irish hospital and an LZDR vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) isolate from an LZDR-MRSE-positive patient.

Methods:

All isolates underwent PhLOPSA susceptibility testing, 23S rRNA sequencing, DNA microarray profiling and WGS.

Results:

All isolates exhibited the PhLOPSA phenotype. The VRE harboured cfr and optrA on a novel 73 kb plasmid (pEF12-0805) also encoding erm(A), erm(B), lnu(B), lnu(E), aphA3 and aadE. One MRSE (M13/0451, from the same patient as the VRE) harboured cfr on a novel 8.5 kb plasmid (pSEM13-0451). The remaining 12 MRSE lacked cfr but exhibited linezolid resistance-associated mutations and were closely related to (1-52 SNPs) but distinct from M13/0451 (202-223 SNPs).

Conclusions:

Using WGS, novel and distinct cfr and cfr/optrA plasmids were identified in an MRSE and VRE isolate, respectively, as well as a cfr-negative LZDR-MRSE ICU outbreak and a distinct cfr-positive LZDR-MRSE from the same ICU. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cfr and optrA on a single VRE plasmid. Ongoing surveillance of linezolid resistance is essential to maintain its therapeutic efficacy.

PMID:
28961986
DOI:
10.1093/jac/dkx292
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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