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Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018 May;37(5):451-458. doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001800.

Nasopharyngeal Pneumococcal Colonization and Impact of a Single Dose of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Indian Children With HIV and Their Unvaccinated Parents.

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From the School of Medical Science and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kharagpur, India.
International Vaccine Access Center and Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland.
Department of Microbiology, Kempegowda Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangalore, India.
Department of Pediatrics, Midnapore Medical College and Hospital, Midnapore, India.
Division of Bacteriology.
Division of Epidemiology, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases (NICED)/Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), Kolkata, India.



Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection increases risk of invasive disease from Streptococcus pneumoniae. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) prevent invasive disease and acquisition of vaccine type (VT) pneumococcus in the nasopharynx.


To look at the safety and impact of one dose of PCV13 on acquisition of VT pneumococcal carriage in Indian children with HIV.


We conducted a cohort study in families of HIV-infected children (CLH) and families of HIV-uninfected children (HUC) in West Bengal. All children received one dose of PCV13. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from children and parents at baseline and 2 months after vaccination.


One hundred and fifteen CLH and 47 HUC received one dose of PCV13. Fifty-eight percent of CLH were on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and the median nadir CD4 count was 287. There were no significant adverse events in either group. HUC had more VT colonization than CLH-55% versus 23% of all pneumococcal isolates. HIV infection doubled the risk of nonvaccine serotype colonization (P = 0.03). There was no difference in acquisition of VT isolates in CLH (4.4%) and HUC (4.5%) post-PCV13; however, older CLH (>5 years) had decreased clearance of VT strains. ART made no difference in pneumococcal colonization at baseline or after PCV13; however, CLH with higher nadir CD4 counts before starting ART were less likely to have VT colonization post-PCV13 (prevalence ratio, 0.2; 95% confidence interval: 0.1-0.5).


While there was no difference in acquisition of VT nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcus in CLH and HUC after one dose of PCV13, earlier access to ART may impact response to PCV13 in CLH.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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