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IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2018 Jan;26(1):37-44. doi: 10.1109/TNSRE.2017.2748930. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

Advanced Boundary Electrode Modeling for tES and Parallel tES/EEG.


This paper explores advanced electrode modeling in the context of separate and parallel transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) and electroencephalography (EEG) measurements. We focus on boundary condition-based approaches that do not necessitate adding auxiliary elements, e.g., sponges, to the computational domain. In particular, we investigate the complete electrode model (CEM) which incorporates a detailed description of the skin-electrode interface including its contact surface, impedance, and normal current distribution. The CEM can be applied for both tES and EEG electrodes which are advantageous when a parallel system is used. In comparison to the CEM, we test two important reduced approaches: the gap model (GAP) and the point electrode model (PEM). We aim to find out the differences of these approaches for a realistic numerical setting based on the stimulation of the auditory cortex. The results obtained suggest, among other things, that GAP and GAP/PEM are sufficiently accurate for the practical application of tES and parallel tES/EEG, respectively. Differences between CEM and GAP were observed mainly in the skin compartment, where only CEM explains the heating effects characteristic to tES.


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