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J Prosthodont. 2018 Jan;27(1):3-9. doi: 10.1111/jopr.12637. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

Comparison of Clinical, Radiographic, and Immunologic Inflammatory Parameters around Crestally and Subcrestally Placed Dental Implants: 5-Year Retrospective Results.

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Department of Prosthetic Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj, Saudi Arabia.
Department of Periodontics and Community Dentistry, College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.



To compare changes in clinical (bleeding on probing [BOP] and probing pocket depth [PPD]), radiographic (crestal bone loss [CBL]), and immunologic inflammatory (interleukin-1beta [IL-1β] and matrix metalloproteinase-9 [MMP-9]) parameters around crestally and subcrestally placed dental implants 5 years after implant placement.


Fifty-two patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (n = 27): patients with single implants placed approximately 2 mm below the alveolar crest; group 2 (n = 25): patients with single implants placed at bone level. In both groups, peri-implant BOP, PPD, and CBL were measured, and levels of IL-1β and MMP-9 were determined in duplicates using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Full-mouth debridement was performed biannually in both groups. Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test (significance set at p < 0.05).


All measurements in groups 1 and 2 were performed 5.3 ± 0.2 and 5.2 ± 0.1 years after implant placement, respectively. The mean CBL was 1.2 ± 0.2 mm and 1.4 ± 0.2 mm in groups 1 and 2, respectively. There was no significant difference in mean BOP, PPD, CBL and in levels of IL-1β, and MMP-9 among implants in both groups.


Clinical, radiographic, and immunologic inflammatory parameters are comparable around crestally and subcrestally placed single dental implants up to 5 years after placement. The depth of implant placement appears to have no effect on clinical status and performance of single dental implants.


Crestal bone loss; crestal placement; dental implants; peri-implant inflammation; proinflammatory cytokines; subcrestal

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