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J Nutr. 2017 Sep 27. pii: jn252395. doi: 10.3945/jn.117.252395. [Epub ahead of print]

A High-Carbohydrate, High-Fiber, Low-Fat Diet Results in Weight Loss among Adults at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes.

Author information

1
Department of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, dppmail@bsc.gwu.edu.
2
Sumner M. Redstone Global Center for Prevention and Wellness.
3
Section on Pediatric Diabetes and Metabolism, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, MD.
4
Biostatistics Center, and.
5
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics Milken Institute School of Public Health, George Washington University, Washington, DC.
6
Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
7
General Medicine Service, VA Puget Sound, Seattle, WA.
8
Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
9
Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
10
Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN.
11
Diabetes Epidemiology and Clinical Research Section, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, NIH, Phoenix, AZ; and.
12
Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX.

Abstract

Background: Weight loss is a key factor in reducing diabetes risk. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) is a completed clinical trial that randomly assigned individuals at high risk of diabetes to a placebo (PLBO), metformin (MET), or intensive lifestyle intervention (ILS) group, which included physical activity (PA) and reduced dietary fat intake.Objective: We aimed to evaluate the associations between diet and weight at baseline and to identify specific dietary factors that predicted weight loss among DPP participants.Methods: Diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. The associations between intakes of macronutrients and various food groups and body weight among DPP participants at baseline were assessed by linear regression, adjusted for race/ethnicity, age, sex, calorie intake, and PA. Models that predicted weight loss at year 1 were adjusted for baseline weight, change in calorie intake, and change in PA and stratified by treatment allocation (MET, ILS, and PLBO). All results are presented as estimates ± SEs.Results: A total of 3234 participants were enrolled in the DPP; 2924 had completed dietary data (67.5% women; mean age: 50.6 ± 10.7 y). Adjusted for calorie intake, baseline weight was negatively associated with carbohydrate intake (-1.14 ± 0.18 kg body weight/100 kcal carbohydrate, P < 0.0001) and, specifically, dietary fiber (-1.26 ± 0.28 kg/5 g fiber, P < 0.0001). Baseline weight was positively associated with total fat (1.25 ± 0.21 kg/100 kcal, P < 0.0001), saturated fat (1.96 ± 0.46 kg/100 kcal, P < 0.0001), and protein (0.21 ± 0.05 kg/100 kcal, P < 0.0001). For all groups, weight loss after 1 y was associated with increases in carbohydrate intake, specifically dietary fiber, and decreases in total fat and saturated fat intake.Conclusions: Higher carbohydrate consumption among DPP participants, specifically high-fiber carbohydrates, and lower total and saturated fat intake best predicted weight loss when adjusted for changes in calorie intake. Our results support the benefits of a high-carbohydrate, high-fiber, low-fat diet in the context of overall calorie reduction leading to weight loss, which may prevent diabetes in high-risk individuals. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00004992.

KEYWORDS:

carbohydrate; diabetes; diet; macronutrient; weight

PMID:
28954840
DOI:
10.3945/jn.117.252395

Conflict of interest statement

Author disclosures: ACS, SLE, GW, EJB, ESH, UNI, WCK, MGM, MT, MH, KIR, and LMD, no conflicts of interest.

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