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Bioengineering (Basel). 2016 Nov 16;3(4). pii: E29. doi: 10.3390/bioengineering3040029.

Longitudinal Stretching for Maturation of Vascular Tissues Using Magnetic Forces.

Author information

1
Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, 301 Rhodes Research Center, Clemson, SC 29634, USA. trolsen@clemson.edu.
2
Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, 301 Rhodes Research Center, Clemson, SC 29634, USA. mcasco@clemson.edu.
3
Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, 301 Rhodes Research Center, Clemson, SC 29634, USA. aherbst@clemson.edu.
4
Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, 301 Rhodes Research Center, Clemson, SC 29634, USA. gracee@clemson.edu.
5
Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, 301 Rhodes Research Center, Clemson, SC 29634, USA. trother@clemson.edu.
6
Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, 301 Rhodes Research Center, Clemson, SC 29634, USA. lpruett@clemson.edu.
7
Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, 301 Rhodes Research Center, Clemson, SC 29634, USA. jjreid@clemson.edu.
8
Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, 301 Rhodes Research Center, Clemson, SC 29634, USA. krbarry@clemson.edu.
9
Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, 301 Rhodes Research Center, Clemson, SC 29634, USA. mjaeggl@clemson.edu.
10
Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, 301 Rhodes Research Center, Clemson, SC 29634, USA. dsimion@clemson.edu.
11
Department of Regenerative Medicine and Cell Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, 173 Ashley Avenue, 601 Basic Science Building, Charleston, SC 29425, USA. visconrp@musc.edu.
12
Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, 301 Rhodes Research Center, Clemson, SC 29634, USA. falexis@clemson.edu.
13
Department of Bioengineering, Institute of Biological Interfaces of Engineering, Clemson University, 401-2 Rhodes Engineering Research Center, Clemson, SC 29634, USA. falexis@clemson.edu.

Abstract

Cellular spheroids were studied to determine their use as "bioinks" in the biofabrication of tissue engineered constructs. Specifically, magnetic forces were used to mediate the cyclic longitudinal stretching of tissues composed of Janus magnetic cellular spheroids (JMCSs), as part of a post-processing method for enhancing the deposition and mechanical properties of an extracellular matrix (ECM). The purpose was to accelerate the conventional tissue maturation process via novel post-processing techniques that accelerate the functional, structural, and mechanical mimicking of native tissues. The results of a forty-day study of JMCSs indicated an expression of collagen I, collagen IV, elastin, and fibronectin, which are important vascular ECM proteins. Most notably, the subsequent exposure of fused tissue sheets composed of JMCSs to magnetic forces did not hinder the production of these key proteins. Quantitative results demonstrate that cyclic longitudinal stretching of the tissue sheets mediated by these magnetic forces increased the Young's modulus and induced collagen fiber alignment over a seven day period, when compared to statically conditioned controls. Specifically, the elastin and collagen content of these dynamically-conditioned sheets were 35- and three-fold greater, respectively, at seven days compared to the statically-conditioned controls at three days. These findings indicate the potential of using magnetic forces in tissue maturation, specifically through the cyclic longitudinal stretching of tissues.

KEYWORDS:

magnetic forces; magnetic nanoparticles; spheroids; tissue engineering; tissue fusion; tissue maturation

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