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Int J Neurosci. 2018 Mar;128(3):262-282. doi: 10.1080/00207454.2017.1385614. Epub 2017 Oct 11.

The dopaminergic system dynamic in the time perception: a review of the evidence.

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a Brain Mapping and Plasticity Laboratory, Federal University of Piauí (UFPI) , Parnaíba , Brazil.
b Genetics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Federal University of Piauí , Parnaíba , Brazil.
c Brain Mapping and Sensory Motor Integration Laboratory, Institute of Psychiatry of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (IPUB/UFRJ) , Rio de Janeiro , Brazil.
d Rehabilitation Science Program, Analysis of Human Movement Laboratory, Augusto Motta University Center (UNISUAM) , Rio de Janeiro , Brazil.
e Department of Biology , Camden County College , Blackwood , NJ , USA.
f Biomedical Engineering Program (COPPE), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) , Rio de Janeiro , Brazil.
g Brain Mapping and Functionality Laboratory, Federal University of Piauí (UFPI) , Parnaíba , Brazil.


Dopaminergic system plays a key role in perception, which is an important executive function of the brain. Modulation in dopaminergic system forms an important biochemical underpinning of neural mechanisms of time perception in a very wide range, from milliseconds to seconds to longer daily rhythms. Distinct types of temporal experience are poorly understood, and the relationship between processing of different intervals by the brain has received little attention. A comprehensive understanding of interval timing functions should be sought within a wider context of temporal processing, involving genetic aspects, pharmacological models, cognitive aspects, motor control and the neurological diseases with impaired dopaminergic system. Particularly, an unexplored question is whether the role of dopamine in interval timing can be integrated with the role of dopamine in non-interval timing temporal components. In this review, we explore a wider perspective of dopaminergic system, involving genetic polymorphisms, pharmacological models, executive functions and neurological diseases on the time perception. We conclude that the dopaminergic system has great participation in impact on time perception and neurobiological basis of the executive functions and neurological diseases.


Dopamine; executive functions; genetic; neurological diseases; time perception

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