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J Agric Food Chem. 2017 Oct 18;65(41):9061-9068. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b03759. Epub 2017 Oct 9.

Polyphenols from Blossoms of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl. Show Significant Anti-Complement and Anti-Inflammatory Effects.

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College of Food and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology , Guangzhou 510640, China.
The Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine , Guangzhou 510120, China.
Sci-tech Industrial Park, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine , Guangzhou 510120, China.


Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl. (CAVA) was traditionally used as a digestant or expectorant in China. Crude polyphenols (CAVAP-W) extracted from blossoms of CAVA were mainly composed of eriocitrin/neoeriocitrin, eriocitrin/neoeriocitrin, rhoifolin, hesperidin, naringin, rutin, veronicastroside, neohesperidin, and hesperetin by LC-MS analysis. CAVAP-W showed significant anticomplement and anti-inflammatory effects. Due to the close relationship between anticomplement and anti-inflammatory activity, the anti-inflammatory effect was further investigated and the results showed that CAVAP-W significantly suppressed production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), and mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharides-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, CAVAP-W inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation and NF-κB activation through suppressing nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) P65, degradation and phosphorylation of IκBα, phosphorylation of IκKα/ß, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and P38, and activation of COX-2, thereby exerting the anti-inflammatory effects.


Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl.; LC-MS; anti-complement; anti-inflammatory; polyphenolys

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