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Macromol Biosci. 2017 Nov;17(11). doi: 10.1002/mabi.201700236. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Hemocompatibility of Ca2+ -Crosslinked Nanocellulose Hydrogels: Toward Efficient Management of Hemostasis.

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Nanotechnology and Functional Materials, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, 75121, Uppsala, Sweden.
Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory C5, Uppsala University, 75185, Uppsala, Sweden.


The present work investigates Ca2+ -crosslinked nanofibrillated cellulose hydrogels as potential hemostatic wound dressings by studying core interactions between the materials and a central component of wounds and wound healing-the blood. Hydrogels of wood-derived anionic nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and NFC hydrogels that incorporate kaolin or collagen are studied in an in vitro whole blood model and with platelet-free plasma assays. The evaluation of thrombin and factor XIIa formation, platelet reduction, and the release of activated complement system proteins, shows that the NFC hydrogel efficiently triggered blood coagulation, with a rapid onset of clot formation, while displaying basal complement system activation. By using the NFC hydrogel as a carrier of kaolin, the onset of hemostasis is further boosted, while the NFC hydrogel containing collagen exhibits blood activating properties comparable to the anionic NFC hydrogel. The herein studied NFC hydrogels demonstrate great potential for being part of advanced wound healing dressings that can be tuned to target certain wounds (e.g., strongly hemorrhaging ones) or specific phases of the wound healing process for optimal wound management.


biocompatibility; blood coagulation; complement system; nanofibrillated cellulose; wound dressing

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