Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Drug Metab Dispos. 2017 Dec;45(12):1245-1259. doi: 10.1124/dmd.117.077552. Epub 2017 Sep 22.

Species-Specific Involvement of Aldehyde Oxidase and Xanthine Oxidase in the Metabolism of the Pyrimidine-Containing mGlu5-Negative Allosteric Modulator VU0424238 (Auglurant).

Author information

1
Vanderbilt Center for Neuroscience Drug Discovery (R.D.C., A.L.B., A.S.F., P.J.C., C.W.L.), Departments of Pharmacology (R.D.C., A.L.B., A.S.F., P.J.C., C.W.L.), and Chemistry (C.W.L.), Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee.
2
Vanderbilt Center for Neuroscience Drug Discovery (R.D.C., A.L.B., A.S.F., P.J.C., C.W.L.), Departments of Pharmacology (R.D.C., A.L.B., A.S.F., P.J.C., C.W.L.), and Chemistry (C.W.L.), Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee craig.lindsley@vanderbilt.edu.

Abstract

Aldehyde oxidase (AO) and xanthine oxidase (XO) are molybdo-flavoenzymes that catalyze oxidation of aromatic azaheterocycles. Differences in AO activity have been reported among various species, including rats, humans, and monkeys. Herein we report a species difference in the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of the negative allosteric modulator of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5 NAM) VU0424238 (VU238, auglurant). Hepatic S9 incubations with AO and XO specific inhibitors hydralazine and allopurinol indicated that rats and cynomolgus monkeys both oxidized VU238 to the 6-oxopyrimidine metabolite M1 via an AO-mediated pathway, whereas secondary oxidation to the 2,6-dioxopyrimidine metabolite M2 was mediated predominantly by AO in monkeys and XO in rats. Despite differences in enzymatic pathways, intrinsic clearance (CLint) of M1 was similar between species (cynomolgus and rat CLint = 2.00 ± 0.040 and 2.19 ± 0.201 μl/min per milligram of protein, respectively). Inhibitor studies in the S9 of multiple species indicated that oxidation of VU238 to M1 was mediated predominantly by AO in humans, cynomolgus and rhesus monkeys, rats, mice, guinea pigs, and minipigs. Oxidation of M1 to M2 was mediated predominantly by XO in rats and mice and by AO in monkeys and guinea pigs, whereas low turnover prevented enzyme phenotyping in humans and minipigs. Additionally, inhibitor experiments indicated that oxidation at the 2-position of the pyrimidine ring of the known AO substrate, BIBX1382, was mediated by AO in all species, although production of this metabolite was comparatively low in rats and mice. These data may suggest low reactivity of rat AO toward 2-oxidation of pyrimidine-containing compounds and highlight the importance of thoroughly characterizing AO-metabolized drug candidates in multiple preclinical species.

PMID:
28939686
DOI:
10.1124/dmd.117.077552
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire
Loading ...
Support Center