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Oncotarget. 2017 Jul 22;8(35):58122-58132. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.19468. eCollection 2017 Aug 29.

The immune checkpoint molecule V-set Ig domain-containing 4 is an independent prognostic factor for multiple myeloma.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Advanced Research Center for Multiple Myeloma, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.
3
Asan Institute for Life Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
4
Cell Dysfunction Research Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
5
Department of Hematology/Oncology, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.
6
Department of Pathology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.
7
Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
8
Department of Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
#
Contributed equally

Abstract

Multiple myeloma (MM) remains as an incurable disease, despite recent substantial improvements in treatment. Therefore, development of novel biomarkers for risk stratification and new therapeutic targets are imperative. One of the emerging treatments for MM is the immune checkpoint blockades. V-set Ig domain-containing 4 (VSIG4) is a lately studied B7-related immune checkpoint modulator. We assessed the VSIG4 expression in patients with MM and its prognostic impact. We analyzed 81 bone marrow and 66 extramedullary biopsy samples of MM patients using immunohistochemistry. VSIG4 mRNA expression data from the Multiple Myeloma Genomics Portal (MMGP) were analyzed to validate our results. The overall survival (OS) of the high VSIG4 expression group was significantly poorer than that of the low VSIG4 expression group (p = 0.046). VSIG4 expression was remained statistically significant after adjustment for revised international staging system (rISS) and Mayo stratification algorithm (mSMART) risk classification, respectively (p = 0.019 and 0.017). Corroborating results were also observed on analyses of VSIG4 expression in patients with extramedullary MM and external data from the MMGP. Our results suggest that VSIG4 expression in MM is an independent indicator of poor prognosis, implying a possible therapeutic target for immunotherapy for MM.

KEYWORDS:

VSIG4; immune checkpoint; immunohistochemistry; multiple myeloma; prognosis

Conflict of interest statement

CONFLICTS OF INTEREST All the authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

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