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J Clin Virol. 2017 Nov;96:32-36. doi: 10.1016/j.jcv.2017.09.006. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

Outcomes of congenital cytomegalovirus disease following maternal primary and non-primary infection.

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Department of Translational Medical Sciences-Division of Neonatology, Università "Federico II", Naples, Italy. Electronic address:
Department of Translational Medical Sciences-Division of Neonatology, Università "Federico II", Naples, Italy.



Natural history and long term prognosis of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease according to maternal primary versus non-primary infection are not clearly documented.


To investigate clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging features at onset and long term outcome of congenitally CMV-infected patients born to mothers with non-primary infection compared with a group of patients born to mothers with primary infection.


Consecutive neonates born from 2002 to 2015 were considered eligible for the study. Patients underwent clinical, laboratory and instrumental investigation, and audiologic and neurodevelopmental evaluation at diagnosis and during the follow up.


A cohort of 158 congenitally infected children was analyzed. Ninety-three were born to mothers with primary CMV infection (Group 1) and 65 to mothers with a non-primary infection (Group 2). Eighty-eight infants had a symptomatic congenital CMV disease: 49 (46.2%) in Group 1 and 39 (60%) in Group 2. Maternal and demographic characteristics of patients of Group 1 and Group 2 were comparable, with the exception of prematurity and a 1-min Apgar score less than 7, which were more frequent in Group 2 compared to Group 1. Prevalence of neuroimaging findings did not significantly differ between the two groups. An impaired neurodevelopmental outcome was observed in 23.7% of patients of Group 1 and in 24.6% cases of Group 2. Similarly, the frequency of hearing loss did not differ between the two groups (25.8% versus 26.2%, respectively).


Neurodevelopmental and hearing sequelae are not affected by the type of maternal CMV infection. Preventing strategies should be developed for both primary and non-primary infections.


Congenital CMV disease; Maternal serology; Neuroimaging; Prognosis

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