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Cell. 2017 Sep 21;171(1):34-57. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.08.002.

Genome Regulation by Polycomb and Trithorax: 70 Years and Counting.

Author information

1
Institute of Human Genetics, UMR9002 CNRS, University of Montpellier, 141 Rue de la Cardonille, 34396 Montpellier Cedex 5, France. Electronic address: bernd.schuttengruber@igh.cnrs.fr.
2
Centre de Biologie du Développement, UMR5547 CNRS/UPS, Centre de Biologie Intégrative, Université de Toulouse, 31000 Toulouse, France.
3
Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Dr. Aiguader 88, 08003 Barcelona, Spain; Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), 08002 Barcelona, Spain; ICREA, Pg. Lluis Companys 23, 08010 Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address: luciano.dicroce@crg.eu.
4
Institute of Human Genetics, UMR9002 CNRS, University of Montpellier, 141 Rue de la Cardonille, 34396 Montpellier Cedex 5, France. Electronic address: giacomo.cavalli@igh.cnrs.fr.

Abstract

Polycomb (PcG) and Trithorax (TrxG) group proteins are evolutionarily conserved chromatin-modifying factors originally identified as part of an epigenetic cellular memory system that maintains repressed or active gene expression states. Recently, they have been shown to globally control a plethora of cellular processes. This functional diversity is achieved by their ability to regulate chromatin at multiple levels, ranging from modifying local chromatin structure to orchestrating the three-dimensional organization of the genome. Understanding this system is a fascinating challenge of critical relevance for biology and medicine, since misexpression or mutation of multiple PcG components, as well as of TrxG members of the COMPASS family and of the SWI/SNF complex, is implicated in cancer and other diseases.

KEYWORDS:

cancer; cellular memory; chromatin; development; epigenetics; nuclear architecture; polycomb; transcription; transgenerational epigenetic inheritance; trithorax

PMID:
28938122
DOI:
10.1016/j.cell.2017.08.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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