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J Infect Dis. 2017 Sep 15;216(suppl_4):S529-S538. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jix003.

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Viruses at the Animal-Human Interface in Vietnam, 2003-2010.

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Influenza Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Battelle Memorial Institute, Atlanta, Georgia.
National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology.
National Centre of Veterinary Diagnostics.
Influenza and Animal-Human Interface Program, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hanoi, Vietnam.


Mutation and reassortment of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses at the animal-human interface remain a major concern for emergence of viruses with pandemic potential. To understand the relationship of H5N1 viruses circulating in poultry and those isolated from humans, comprehensive phylogenetic and molecular analyses of viruses collected from both hosts in Vietnam between 2003 and 2010 were performed. We examined the temporal and spatial distribution of human cases relative to H5N1 poultry outbreaks and characterized the genetic lineages and amino acid substitutions in each gene segment identified in humans relative to closely related viruses from avian hosts. Six hemagglutinin clades and 8 genotypes were identified in humans, all of which were initially identified in poultry. Several amino acid mutations throughout the genomes of viruses isolated from humans were identified, indicating the potential for poultry viruses infecting humans to rapidly acquire molecular markers associated with mammalian adaptation and antiviral resistance.


Orthomyxovirus; Vietnam; evolution; highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) virus; phylogenetics

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