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J Infect Dis. 2017 Sep 15;216(6):622-631. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jix202.

Higher Prevalence and Faster Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Middle-Aged Individuals Compared With Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Uninfected Controls.

Author information

1
Department of Global Health, Academic Medical Center, and Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development.
2
Department of Nephrology, Academic Medical Center.
3
Division of Infectious Diseases and Center for Infection and Immunity Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center.
4
HIV Monitoring Foundation.
5
Public Health Service Amsterdam, Infectious Diseases Research, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
6
King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.

Abstract

Background:

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are at increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Human immunodeficiency virus infection, traditional CKD risk factors, and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may all contribute.

Methods:

We compared prevalence of renal impairment (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73m2), albuminuria (albumin/creatinine ratio ≥3 mg/mmol), and proximal renal tubular dysfunction (retinol-binding protein/creatinine ratio >2.93μg/mmol and/or fractional phosphate excretion >20% with plasma phosphate <0.8 mmol/L) in 596 HIV-infected and 544 HIV-uninfected AGEhIV Cohort Study participants. We also assessed whether being HIV-infected on cART, with follow-up censored when cART regimen was modified, was associated with greater eGFR decline or worsening albuminuria (increase ≥10%/year with change in albuminuria category).

Results:

Human immunodeficiency virus infection was independently associated with renal impairment (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-4.4), albuminuria (aOR = 5.8; 95% CI = 3.7-9.0), and proximal renal tubular dysfunction (aOR = 7.0; 95% CI = 4.9-10.2]). Among 479 HIV-infected and 377 HIV-uninfected individuals (median follow-up = 3.9/4.1 years, respectively) included in longitudinal analyses, being HIV-infected and remaining on unmodified cART was independently associated with greater eGFR decline (-0.56; 95% CI = -0.87 to -0.24 mL/min/1.73m2/year) and worsening albuminuria (aOR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.3-4.0).

Conclusions:

In these middle-aged individuals, HIV infection was independently associated with renal impairment, albuminuria, and proximal renal tubular dysfunction. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals on cART (predominantly containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) were also more likely to experience eGFR decline and worsening albuminuria compared with HIV-uninfected individuals.

KEYWORDS:

HIV infection; albuminuria; proximal renal tubular dysfunction; renal impairment; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate

PMID:
28934420
DOI:
10.1093/infdis/jix202
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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