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Curr Med Res Opin. 2018 Jan;34(1):13-23. doi: 10.1080/03007995.2017.1383889. Epub 2017 Oct 6.

Healthcare utilization and direct costs of non-infectious comorbidities in HIV-infected patients in the USA.

Author information

a Southwest CARE Center , Santa Fe , NM , USA.
b UCSF School of Medicine , San Francisco , CA , USA.
c Gilead Sciences , Foster City , CA , USA.
d Truven Health Analytics, an IBM Company , Cambridge , MA , USA.



To estimate the incremental healthcare utilization and costs associated with common non-infectious comorbid conditions among commercially and Medicaid-insured HIV-infected patients in the US.


US administrative claims were used to select adult HIV patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, or fracture/osteoporosis, three common comorbidities that have been associated with HIV and HIV treatment, between 1 January 2004 and 30 June 2013. Propensity score matched controls with no CKD, no CVD events, and no fracture/osteoporosis were identified for comparison. All-cause healthcare utilization and costs were reported as per patient per month (PPPM).


The commercial cohort comprised 381 CKD patients, 624 patients with CVD events, and 774 fracture/osteoporosis patients, and 1013, 1710, and 2081 matched controls, respectively; while the Medicaid HIV cohort comprised 207 CKD and 271 CVD cases, and 516 and 735 matched controls, respectively. There was insufficient Medicaid data for fracture analyses. Across both payers, HIV patients with CKD or CVD events had significantly higher healthcare utilization and costs than controls. The average incremental PPPM costs in HIV patients with CKD were $1403 in the commercial cohort and $3051 in the Medicaid cohort. In those with CVD events, the incremental costs were $2655 (commercial) and $4959 (Medicaid) for HIV patients compared to controls (pā€‰<ā€‰.001).


The results suggested a considerable increase in healthcare utilization and costs associated with CKD, CVD and fracture/osteoporosis comorbidities among HIV patients in the past decade. Because these conditions have been associated with treatment, it is critical to consider their impact on costs and outcomes when optimizing patient care.


HIV; Healthcare costs; cardiovascular disease; chronic kidney disease; claims data

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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