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J Thorac Dis. 2017 Aug;9(8):2404-2412. doi: 10.21037/jtd.2017.07.03.

Effects of preemptive cerebrospinal fluid drainage on spinal cord protection during thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

Author information

1
Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, International St. Mary's Hospital, Catholic Kwandong University, Incheon, South Korea.
2
Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
3
Department of Interventional Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.
4
Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, Cardiovascular Hospital, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is reported to occur in 3-12% of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) cases, but is a potentially preventable complication of TEVAR for thoracoabdominal pathologies. Although many strategies have been devised to reduce the incidence of SCI, the effectiveness of prophylactic cerebrospinal fluid drainage (CSFD) and left subclavian artery (LSA) revascularization remains controversial.

METHODS:

From 2012 to 2014, 162 patients underwent TEVAR at a single institution. We prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed the data of 81 patients who underwent preoperative CSFD among the 162 patients. LSA revascularization was routinely used when LSA need to be covered. Preoperative characteristics, intraoperative variables, and outcomes were analyzed.

RESULTS:

The mean (SD) age of the patients was 60.6 (12.5) years, and 57 patients (70%) were male. Twenty-five patients (31%) presented with degenerative aneurysm; 48 (59%), type B dissection; 5, (6%) penetrating aortic ulcer; and 3 (4%), intramural hematoma. Thirty-six patients (44%) underwent LSA revascularization before TEVAR. Two (2.5%) of the patients who underwent preoperative CSFD had SCI, of whom one recovered ambulatory status at discharge after hypertensive therapy and another had a permanent disability. Prior abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair tended to relate to SCI (P=0.065), and preoperative aortic rupture was a significant independent risk factor of SCI (P=0.002).

CONCLUSIONS:

Preemptive CSFD as an adjunctive procedure to TEVAR proved to be more effective than selective use of CSFD in other prior reports of SCI cases. Preoperative CSFD is recommended as a prophylactic procedure in patients at high risk of SCI during TEVAR.

KEYWORDS:

Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR); cerebrospinal fluid drainage (CSFD); spinal cord injury (SCI)

Conflict of interest statement

Conflicts of Interest: The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.

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