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J Nutr. 2017 Nov;147(11):2076-2082. doi: 10.3945/jn.117.254789. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

A 25-Hydroxycholecalciferol-Fortified Dairy Drink Is More Effective at Raising a Marker of Postprandial Vitamin D Status than Cholecalciferol in Men with Suboptimal Vitamin D Status.

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Institute for Food, Nutrition and Health.
Hugh Sinclair Unit of Human Nutrition.
Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, and.
Psychology, School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom.
Institute for Food, Nutrition and Health,


Background: One strategy for improving population vitamin D status is consumption of fortified foods. However, the effects of dairy products fortified with different vitamin D isoforms on postprandial vitamin D status and metabolic outcomes have not been addressed.Objective: We investigated whether consumption of dairy drinks fortified with either 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3] or cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) had differential effects on 24-h circulating plasma 25(OH)D3 concentration (a marker of vitamin D status) and cardiometabolic risk markers.Methods: A randomized, controlled, 3-way crossover, double-blind, postprandial study was conducted in 17 men with suboptimal vitamin D status [mean ± SEM age: 49 ± 3 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 26.4 ± 0.6; and plasma 25(OH)D3 concentration: 31.7 ± 3.4 nmol/L]. They were randomly assigned to consume 3 different test meals (4.54 MJ, 51 g fat, 125 g carbohydrate, and 23 g protein), which contained either a nonfortified dairy drink (control), 20 μg 25(OH)D3-fortified (+HyD3) dairy drink, or 20 μg vitamin D3-fortified (+D3) dairy drink with toasted bread and jam on different occasions, separated by a 2-wk washout. Plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations and cardiometabolic risk markers, including vascular stiffness, serum lipids, and inflammatory markers, were measured frequently within 8 h postprandially and 24 h after the dairy drink was consumed.Results: Plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations (the primary outcome) were significantly higher after the +HyD3 dairy drink was consumed compared with +D3 and control (P = 0.019), which was reflected in the 1.5-fold and 1.8-fold greater incremental area under the curve for the 0-8 h response, respectively. The change in plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations from baseline to 24 h for the +HyD3 dairy drink was also 0.9-fold higher than the +D3 dairy drink and 4.4-fold higher than the control (P < 0.0001), which were not significantly different from each other.Conclusion: The dairy drink fortified with 25(OH)D3 was more effective at raising plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations postprandially than was the dairy drink fortified with vitamin D3 in men with suboptimal vitamin D status. This trial was registered at as NCT02535910.


25(OH)D3; augmentation index; butter; dairy drink; milk; vascular function; vitamin D status; vitamin D3

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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