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J Nutr. 2017 Dec;147(12):2356-2363. doi: 10.3945/jn.117.256974. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Use of a "Super-child" Approach to Assess the Vitamin A Equivalence of Moringa oleifera Leaves, Develop a Compartmental Model for Vitamin A Kinetics, and Estimate Vitamin A Total Body Stores in Young Mexican Children.

Author information

1
Nutritional Sciences, Department of Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico.
2
Department of Nutritional Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA.
3
Former Carotenoids and Health Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA.
4
USDA Agricultural Research Service, Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.
5
Department of Nutrition, Research Center for Food and Development, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico; and.
6
International Potato Centre (CIP), International Livestock Research Institute Campus, Nairobi, Kenya.
7
Department of Nutrition, Research Center for Food and Development, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico; and hastiazaran@ciad.mx.

Abstract

Background: Worldwide, an estimated 250 million children <5 y old are vitamin A (VA) deficient. In Mexico, despite ongoing efforts to reduce VA deficiency, it remains an important public health problem; thus, food-based interventions that increase the availability and consumption of provitamin A-rich foods should be considered.Objective: The objectives were to assess the VA equivalence of 2H-labeled Moringa oleifera (MO) leaves and to estimate both total body stores (TBS) of VA and plasma retinol kinetics in young Mexican children.Methods: β-Carotene was intrinsically labeled by growing MO plants in a 2H2O nutrient solution. Fifteen well-nourished children (17-35 mo old) consumed puréed MO leaves (1 mg β-carotene) and a reference dose of [13C10]retinyl acetate (1 mg) in oil. Blood (2 samples/child) was collected 10 times (2 or 3 children each time) over 35 d. The bioefficacy of MO leaves was calculated from areas under the composite "super-child" plasma isotope response curves, and MO VA equivalence was estimated through the use of these values; a compartmental model was developed to predict VA TBS and retinol kinetics through the use of composite plasma [13C10]retinol data. TBS were also estimated with isotope dilution.Results: The relative bioefficacy of β-carotene retinol activity equivalents from MO was 28%; VA equivalence was 3.3:1 by weight (0.56 μmol retinol:1 μmol β-carotene). Kinetics of plasma retinol indicate more rapid plasma appearance and turnover and more extensive recycling in these children than are observed in adults. Model-predicted mean TBS (823 μmol) was similar to values predicted using a retinol isotope dilution equation applied to data from 3 to 6 d after dosing (mean ± SD: 832 ± 176 μmol; n = 7).Conclusions: The super-child approach can be used to estimate population carotenoid bioefficacy and VA equivalence, VA status, and parameters of retinol metabolism from a composite data set. Our results provide initial estimates of retinol kinetics in well-nourished young children with adequate VA stores and demonstrate that MO leaves may be an important source of VA.

KEYWORDS:

bioefficacy; compartmental analysis; retinol isotope dilution; retinol kinetics; β-carotene bioconversion

PMID:
28931584
DOI:
10.3945/jn.117.256974
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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