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BMC Plant Biol. 2017 Sep 20;17(1):158. doi: 10.1186/s12870-017-1101-8.

Diversity, distribution of Puroindoline genes and their effect on kernel hardness in a diverse panel of Chinese wheat germplasm.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Plant Cell and Chromosome Engineering, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 West Beichen Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100101, China.
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.
3
Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Vehari, 61100, Pakistan.
4
The Institute of Forestry and Pomology, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Beijing, 100093, China.
5
State Key Laboratory of Plant Cell and Chromosome Engineering, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 West Beichen Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100101, China. amzhang@genetics.ac.cn.
6
State Key Laboratory of Plant Cell and Chromosome Engineering, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1 West Beichen Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100101, China. dcliu@genetics.ac.cn.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Kernel hardness, which has great influence on the end-use properties of common wheat, is mainly controlled by Puroindoline genes, Pina and Pinb. Using EcoTILLING platform, we herein investigated the allelic variations of Pina and Pinb genes and their association with the Single Kernel Characterization System (SKCS) hardness index in a diverse panel of wheat germplasm.

RESULTS:

The kernel hardness varied from 1.4 to 102.7, displaying a wide range of hardness index. In total, six Pina and nine Pinb alleles resulting in 15 genotypes were detected in 1787 accessions. The most common alleles are the wild type Pina-D1a (90.4%) and Pina-D1b (7.4%) for Pina, and Pinb-D1b (43.6%), Pinb-D1a (41.1%) and Pinb-D1p (12.8%) for Pinb. All the genotypes have hard type kernel hardness of SKCS index (>60.0), except the wild types of Pina and Pinb combination (Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1a). The most frequent genotypes in Chinese and foreign cultivars was Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1b (46.3 and 39.0%, respectively) and in Chinese landraces was Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1a (54.2%). The frequencies of hard type accessions are increasing from 35.5% in the region IV, to 40.6 and 61.4% in the regions III and II, and then to 77.0% in the region I, while those of soft type are accordingly decreasing along with the increase of latitude. Varieties released after 2000 in Beijing, Hebei, Shandong and Henan have higher average kernel hardness index than that released before 2000.

CONCLUSION:

The kernel hardness in a diverse panel of Chinese wheat germplasm revealed an increasing of kernel hardness generally along with the latitude across China. The wild type Pina-D1a and Pinb-D1a, and one Pinb mutant (Pinb-D1b) are the most common alleles of six Pina and nine Pinb alleles, and a new double null genotype (Pina-D1x/Pinb-D1ah) possessed relatively high SKCS hardness index. More hard type varieties were released in recent years with different prevalence of Pin-D1 combinations in different regions. This work would benefit the understanding of the selection and molecular processes of kernel hardness across China and different breeding stages, and provide useful information for the improvement of wheat quality in China.

KEYWORDS:

Allelic variants; Common wheat; EcoTILLING; Kernel hardness; Puroindoline genes

PMID:
28931378
PMCID:
PMC5607584
DOI:
10.1186/s12870-017-1101-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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