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J Infect Dis. 2017 Sep 1;216(5):594-603. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jix244.

Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus Among Females After Vaccine Introduction-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States, 2003-2014.

Author information

1
Division of Viral Diseases, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases.
2
Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Abstract

Background:

Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recommended in 2006 for routine vaccination of US females aged 11-12 years. Most vaccine used through 2014 was quadrivalent vaccine (4vHPV), which prevents HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18 infection. To evaluate vaccine impact, we measured HPV prevalence in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

Methods:

We analyzed HPV DNA types detected in self-collected cervicovaginal specimens and demographic, sexual behavior, and self-reported vaccination data from females 14-34 years old. We estimated HPV prevalence in the prevaccine (2003-2006) and vaccine eras (2007-2010 and 2011-2014).

Results:

Among 14- to 19-year-olds, 4vHPV-type prevalence decreased from 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.1%-14.4%) in 2003-2006 to 3.3% (95% CI, 1.9%-5.8%) in 2011-2014, when ≥1-dose coverage was 55%. Among 20- to 24-year-olds, prevalence decreased from 18.5% (95% CI, 14.9%-22.8%) in 2003-2006 to 7.2% (95% CI, 4.7%-11.1%) in 2011-2014, when ≥1-dose coverage was 43%. Compared to 2003-2006, 4vHPV prevalence in sexually active 14- to 24-year-olds in 2011-2014 decreased 89% among those vaccinated and 34% among those unvaccinated. Vaccine effectiveness was 83%.

Conclusions:

Within 8 years of vaccine introduction, 4vHPV-type prevalence decreased 71% among 14- to 19-year-olds and 61% among 20- to 24-year-olds. Estimated vaccine effectiveness was high. The decrease in 4vHPV-type prevalence among unvaccinated females suggests herd protection.

KEYWORDS:

HPV vaccine; human papillomavirus; prevalence; vaccine effectiveness; vaccine impact

PMID:
28931217
PMCID:
PMC5740482
DOI:
10.1093/infdis/jix244
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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