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ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2017 Oct 11;9(40):35476-35482. doi: 10.1021/acsami.7b11768. Epub 2017 Sep 28.

Energy Level Alignment of N-Doping Fullerenes and Fullerene Derivatives Using Air-Stable Dopant.

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Key Laboratory of Polar Materials and Devices, Ministry of Education, East China Normal University , 200241 Shanghai, P. R. China.
Division of Surface Physics and Chemistry, IFM, Linköping University , SE-58183 Linköping, Sweden.
Institute of Functional Nano & Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Soochow University , Suzhou 215123, P. R. China.


Doping has been proved to be one of the powerful technologies to achieve significant improvement in the performance of organic electronic devices. Herein, we systematically map out the interface properties of solution-processed air-stable n-type (4-(1,3-dimethyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)phenyl) doping fullerenes and fullerene derivatives and establish a universal energy level alignment scheme for this class of n-doped system. At low doping levels at which the charge-transfer doping induces mainly bound charges, the energy level alignment of the n-doping organic semiconductor can be described by combining integer charger transfer-induced shifts with a so-called double-dipole step. At high doping levels, significant densities of free charges are generated and the charge flows between the organic film and the conducting electrodes equilibrating the Fermi level in a classic "depletion layer" scheme. Moreover, we demonstrate that the model holds for both n- and p-doping of π-backbone molecules and polymers. With the results, we provide wide guidance for identifying the application of the current organic n-type doping technology in organic electronics.


Interfaces; doping; energy level alignment; organic electronics; organic semiconductor; spectroscopy

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