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J Vet Sci. 2017 Dec 31;18(4):465-470. doi: 10.4142/jvs.2017.18.4.465.

Comparison of allele-specific PCR, created restriction-site PCR, and PCR with primer-introduced restriction analysis methods used for screening complex vertebral malformation carriers in Holstein cattle.

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Department of Animal Breeding and Husbandry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul 34320, Turkey.


Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) is an inherited, autosomal recessive disorder of Holstein cattle. The aim of this study was to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, and rapidity of allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR), created restriction-site PCR (CRS-PCR), and PCR with primer-introduced restriction analysis (PCR-PIRA), three methods used in identification of CVM carriers in a Holstein cattle population. In order to screen for the G>T mutation in the solute carrier family 35 member A3 (SLC35A3) gene, DNA sequencing as the gold standard method was used. The prevalence of carriers and the mutant allele frequency were 3.2% and 0.016, respectively, among Holstein cattle in the Thrace region of Turkey. Among the three methods, the fastest but least accurate was AS-PCR. Although the rapidity of CRS-PCR and PCR-PIRA were nearly equal, the accuracy of PCR-PIRA was higher than that of CRS-PCR. Therefore, among the three methods, PCR-PIRA appears to be the most efficacious for screening of mutant alleles when identifying CVM carriers in a Holstein cattle population.


Holstein cattle; Turkey; carrier; complex vertebral malformation

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