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Leukemia. 2018 Mar;32(3):729-735. doi: 10.1038/leu.2017.286. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Clinical presentation and outcomes in light chain amyloidosis patients with non-evaluable serum free light chains.

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Division of Hematology, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.


Hematologic response criteria in light chain (AL) amyloidosis require the difference in involved and uninvolved free light chains (dFLC) to be at least 5 mg/dl. We describe the clinical presentation and outcomes of newly diagnosed amyloidosis patients with dFLC <5 mg/dl (non-evaluable dFLC; 14%, n=165) compared with patients with dFLC ⩾5 mg/dl (evaluable dFLC; 86%, n=975). Patients with non-evaluable dFLC had less cardiac involvement (40% vs 80%, P<0.001), less liver involvement (11% vs 17%, P=0.04) and a trend toward less gastrointestinal involvement (18% vs 25%, P=0.08). However, significantly higher renal involvement (72% vs 56%, P=0.0002) was observed in the non-evaluable dFLC cohort. Differences in treatment patterns were observed, with 51% of treated patients undergoing upfront stem cell transplantation in the non-evaluable cohort compared with 28% in the evaluable dFLC group (P<0.001). Progression-free survival (61 vs 13 months, P<0.001) and overall survival (OS; 101 vs 29 months, P<0.001) were significantly longer in the non-evaluable dFLC cohort. Normalization of involved light chain levels and decrease in dFLC <1 mg/dl (baseline at least 2 mg/dl) were predictive of OS and associated with better dialysis-free survival and may be used for response assessment in patients with non-evaluable FLC levels.

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