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Presse Med. 2017 Nov;46(11):1008-1019. doi: 10.1016/j.lpm.2017.08.012. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

[Autoimmune hepatitis: Immunological diagnosis].

[Article in French]

Author information

1
CHU Mohammed VI, laboratoire d'immunologie, Marrakech, Maroc. Electronic address: imanebrahim09@gmail.com.
2
CHU Mohammed VI, centre de recherche clinique, Marrakech, Maroc.
3
CHU Mohammed VI, laboratoire d'immunologie, Marrakech, Maroc.
4
CHU Mohammed VI, laboratoire d'immunologie, Marrakech, Maroc; CHU Mohammed VI, centre de recherche clinique, Marrakech, Maroc; Université Cadi Ayyad, faculté de médecine, laboratoire de recherche PCIM, Marrakech, Maroc.

Abstract

Autoimmune hepatopathies (AIHT) including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune cholangitis (AIC), represent an impressive entities in clinical practice. Their pathogenesis is not perfectly elucidated. Several factors are involved in the initiation of hepatic autoimmune and inflammatory phenomena such as genetic predisposition, molecular mimicry and/or abnormalities of T-regulatory lymphocytes. AIHT have a wide spectrum of presentation, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severe acute liver failure. The diagnosis of AIHT is based on the presence of hyperglobulinemia, cytolysis, cholestasis, typical even specific circulating auto-antibodies, distinctive of AIH or PBC, and histological abnormalities as well as necrosis and inflammation. Anti-F actin, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1 antibodies permit to distinguish between AIH type 1 and AIH type 2. Anti-SLA/LP antibodies are rather associated to more severe hepatitis, and particularly useful for the diagnosis of seronegative AIH for other the antibodies. Due to the relevant diagnostic value of anti-M2, anti-Sp100, and anti-gp210 antibodies, the diagnosis of PBC is more affordable than that of PSC and AIC. Based on clinical data, the immunological diagnosis of AIHT takes advantage of the various specialized laboratory techniques including immunofluorescence, immunodot or blot, and the Elisa systems, provided of a closer collaboration between the biologist and the physician.

PMID:
28919271
DOI:
10.1016/j.lpm.2017.08.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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