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Vascul Pharmacol. 2018 Jan;100:26-33. doi: 10.1016/j.vph.2017.09.002. Epub 2017 Sep 12.

Regulation and function of endothelial glycocalyx layer in vascular diseases.

Author information

1
Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany.
2
Institute of Clinical Biochemistry, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany.
3
Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany. Electronic address: hilfiker.denise@mh-hannover.de.

Abstract

In the vascular system, the endothelial surface layer (ESL) as the inner surface of blood vessels affects mechanotransduction, vascular permeability, rheology, thrombogenesis, and leukocyte adhesion. It creates barriers between endothelial cells and blood and neighbouring cells. The glycocalyx, composed of glycoconjugates and proteoglycans, is an integral component of the ESL and a key element in inter- and intracellular communication and tissue homeostasis. In pathophysiological conditions (atherosclerosis, infection, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diabetes, trauma and acute lung injury) glycocalyx-degrading factors, i.e. reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, matrix metalloproteinases, heparanase and sialidases, damage the ESL, thereby impairing endothelial functions. This leads to increased capillary permeability, leucocyte-endothelium interactions, thrombosis and vascular inflammation, the latter further driving glycocalyx destruction. The present review highlights current knowledge on the vasculoprotective role of the ESL, with specific emphasis on its remodelling in inflammatory vascular diseases and discusses its potential as a novel therapeutic target to treat vascular pathologies.

KEYWORDS:

Endothelium; Glycocalyx; Inflammation; Vascular diseases

PMID:
28919014
DOI:
10.1016/j.vph.2017.09.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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