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Mol Genet Metab. 2017 Nov;122(3):61-66. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2017.09.001. Epub 2017 Sep 8.

Enzymatic testing sensitivity, variability and practical diagnostic algorithm for pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) deficiency.

Author information

1
School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University (CWRU), Cleveland, OH, USA.
2
Center for Inherited Disorders of Energy Metabolism (CIDEM), University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center (UHCMC), Cleveland, OH, USA.
3
Center for Inherited Disorders of Energy Metabolism (CIDEM), University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center (UHCMC), Cleveland, OH, USA; Department of Genetics and Genome Sciences, CWRU, Cleveland, OH, USA; Center for Human Genetics, UHCMC, Cleveland, OH, USA.
4
Center for Inherited Disorders of Energy Metabolism (CIDEM), University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center (UHCMC), Cleveland, OH, USA; Department of Pediatrics, CWRU, Cleveland, OH, USA.
5
Center for Inherited Disorders of Energy Metabolism (CIDEM), University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center (UHCMC), Cleveland, OH, USA; Department of Genetics and Genome Sciences, CWRU, Cleveland, OH, USA; Center for Human Genetics, UHCMC, Cleveland, OH, USA. Electronic address: Jirair.Bedoyan@UHhospitals.org.

Abstract

Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) deficiency is a major cause of primary lactic acidemia in children. Prompt and correct diagnosis of PDC deficiency and differentiating between specific vs generalized, or secondary deficiencies has important implications for clinical management and therapeutic interventions. Both genetic and enzymatic testing approaches are being used in the diagnosis of PDC deficiency. However, the diagnostic efficacy of such testing approaches for individuals affected with PDC deficiency has not been systematically investigated in this disorder. We sought to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity and variability of the various PDC enzyme assays in females and males at the Center for Inherited Disorders of Energy Metabolism (CIDEM). CIDEM data were filtered by lactic acidosis and functional PDC deficiency in at least one cell/tissue type (blood lymphocytes, cultured fibroblasts or skeletal muscle) identifying 186 subjects (51% male and 49% female), about half were genetically resolved with 78% of those determined to have a pathogenic PDHA1 mutation. Assaying PDC in cultured fibroblasts in cases where the underlying genetic etiology is PDHA1, was highly sensitive irrespective of gender; 97% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 90%-100%) and 91% (95% CI: 82%-100%) in females and males, respectively. In contrast to the fibroblast-based testing, the lymphocyte- and muscle-based testing were not sensitive (36% [95% CI: 11%-61%, p=0.0003] and 58% [95% CI: 30%-86%, p=0.014], respectively) for identifying known PDC deficient females with pathogenic PDHA1 mutations. In males with a known PDHA1 mutation, the sensitivity of the various cell/tissue assays (75% lymphocyte, 91% fibroblast and 88% muscle) were not statistically different, and the discordance frequency due to the specific cell/tissue used for assaying PDC was 0.15±0.11. Based on this data, a practical diagnostic algorithm is proposed accounting for current molecular approaches, enzyme testing sensitivity, and variability due to gender, cell/tissue type used for testing, and successive repeat testing.

KEYWORDS:

Biochemical testing; Diagnostic algorithm; PDHA1; Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency; Sensitivity; Variability

PMID:
28918066
PMCID:
PMC5722699
DOI:
10.1016/j.ymgme.2017.09.001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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