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Pediatrics. 2017 Oct;140(4). pii: e20171162. doi: 10.1542/peds.2017-1162. Epub 2017 Sep 15.

Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Very Preterm Infants: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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NICU, Departments of Women's and Child's Health and
Endocrinology Section, Department of Pediatrics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.
Information Engineering, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.
Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; and.
Independent Statistician, Padova, Italy.
NICU, Departments of Women's and Child's Health and.



Impaired glucose control in very preterm infants is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and poor neurologic outcome. Strategies based on insulin titration have been unsuccessful in achieving euglycemia in absence of an increase in hypoglycemia and mortality. We sought to assess whether glucose administration guided by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is more effective than standard of care blood glucose monitoring in maintaining euglycemia in very preterm infants.


Fifty newborns ≤32 weeks' gestation or with birth weight ≤1500 g were randomly assigned (1:1) within 48-hours from birth to receive computer-guided glucose infusion rate (GIR) with or without CGM. In the unblinded CGM group, the GIR adjustments were driven by CGM and rate of glucose change, whereas in the blinded CGM group the GIR was adjusted by using standard of care glucometer on the basis of blood glucose determinations. Primary outcome was percentage of time spent in euglycemic range (72-144 mg/dL). Secondary outcomes were percentage of time spent in mild (47-71 mg/dL) and severe (<47 mg/dL) hypoglycemia; percentage of time in mild (145-180 mg/dL) and severe (>180 mg/dL) hyperglycemia; and glucose variability.


Neonates in the unblinded CGM group had a greater percentage of time spent in euglycemic range (median, 84% vs 68%, P < .001) and decreased time spent in mild (P = .04) and severe (P = .007) hypoglycemia and in severe hyperglycemia (P = .04) compared with the blinded CGM group. Use of CGM also decreased glycemic variability (SD: 21.6 ± 5.4 mg/dL vs 27 ± 7.2 mg/dL, P = .01; coefficient of variation: 22.8% ± 4.2% vs 27.9% ± 5.0%; P < .001).


CGM-guided glucose titration can successfully increase the time spent in euglycemic range, reduce hypoglycemia, and minimize glycemic variability in preterm infants during the first week of life.

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